Health outcomes quantified and monetizedb

Ozone – mortality; hospital admissions (all respiratory, pneumonia, COPD, and emergency dept.visits for asthma); acute respiratory symptoms (asthma attacks and minor restricted-activity days); mortality from air toxics

PM – mortality (short- and long-term); bronchitis (chronic and acute); hospital admissions (all respiratory [all respiratory, pneumonia, and COPD], congestive heart failure, and ischemic heart disease), lower and upper (shortness of breath, asthma attacks) respiratory symptoms; work-loss days; minor restricted-activity days

Ozone – chronic asthma; minor restricted-activity days and acute respiratory symptoms; hospital admissions (respiratory and cardiovascular); emergency room visits for asthma

PM – premature mortality; bronchitis (chronic and acute); hospital admissions (respiratory and cardiovascular); emergency room visits for asthma; lower and upper respiratory illness; shortness of breath; minor restricted-activity days and acute respiratory symptoms; work-loss days

Ozone – minor restricted-activity days; hospital admissions (respiratory and cardiovascular); emergency room visits for asthma; asthma attacks

PM – premature mortality; bronchitis (acute and chronic); hospital admissions (respiratory and cardiovascular); emergency room visits for asthma; asthma attacks; lower and upper respiratory illness; minor restricted-activity days; work-loss days

Concentration-response function used for primary estimates of mortality benefits

Pope et al. (1995)

Pope et al. (1995)

Krewski et al. (2000), a re-analysis of the Pope et al. (1995) study

Threshold assumptions

High-end estimate of benefits assumed 12 µg/m3 mean threshold for PM2.5-related long-term mortality; low-end estimate of benefits assumed 15 µg/m3 threshold for all PM-related health outcomes

No thresholds above background concentrations assumed for modeled health effects

No thresholds above background concentrations assumed for modeled health effects



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