TABLE 2-4 Annual Health Benefits (Avoided Cases of Morbidity and Mortality and Monetized Value) for the HD Engine and Diesel-Fuel Regulation for 2030

Health Outcome

Avoided Casesa

Monetized Benefit (1995$ in millions)b

PM-Related Health Outcomes

Premature mortality (adults, ages 30 and over)

8,300 (4,800-11,700)

62,580

Chronic bronchitis (adults, ages 26 and over)

5,500 (1,900-9,500)

2,430

Hospital admissions

 

Pneumonia (adults, ages 65 and over)

1,100 (600-1,600)

20

COPD (adults, ages 64 and over)

900 (200-1,600)

10

Asthma (ages 65 and younger)

900 (400-1,400)

10

Cardiovascular (adults, ages 65 and over)

2,700 (2,300-3,100)

50

Emergency room visits for asthma (ages 65 and younger)

2,100 (900-3,200)

<5

Asthma attacks (all ages)

175,900 (61,000-291,900)

Not monetized

Acute bronchitis (children, ages 8-12)

17,600 (• •100-35,900)

<5

Lower respiratory symptoms (children, ages 7-14)

192,900 (88,300-295,800)

<5

Upper respiratory symptoms (children with asthma, ages 9-11)

193,400 (65,300-325,400)

10

Work-loss days (adults, ages 18-65)

1,539,400 (1,337,300-1,733,300)

160

Minor restricted-activity days (adults, ages 18-65)

7,990,400 (6,806,700-9,104,800)

430

Ozone-Related Health Outcomesc

Hospital admissions

 

Respiratory causes (all ages)

1,200 (200-2,100)

20

Cardiac dysrhymias (all ages)

300 (0-600)

<5

Emergency room visits for asthma (all ages)

300 (100-500)

<1

Asthma attacks (all ages)

185,500 (70,400-305,800)

Not monetized

Minor restricted-activity days (adults, ages 18-65)

1,848,100 (988,600-2,706,600)

100

Decreased worker productivity (adult working population)

Not reported

140

aMean value provided with 5th and 95th percentile values shown in parentheses rounded to the nearest 100.

bMean value of monetized value provided for reference. The estimates have been adjusted for growth in real income.

cEstimates provided are for eastern United States only.

Abbreviation: COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Source: Adapted from EPA 2000a,b.



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