Review of NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise Applications Program Plan

Committee to Review NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise Applications Plan

Space Studies Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu



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Review of NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise Applications Program Plan Review of NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise Applications Program Plan Committee to Review NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise Applications Plan Space Studies Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Review of NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise Applications Program Plan NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this project was provided by Contract NASW-01001 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsor. Copies of this report are available free of charge from: Space Studies Board National Research Council 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Review of NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise Applications Program Plan THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm.A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V.Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts and Dr. Wm.A.Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Review of NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise Applications Program Plan COMMITTEE TO REVIEW NASA’S EARTH SCIENCE ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS PLAN MICHAEL J.ARMSTRONG, ICF Consulting, Chair WILLIAM W.HOOVER, U.S. Air Force (retired) DOROTHY E.PATTON, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (retired) ROBERT J.PLANTE, Raytheon Systems Company HEIDI M.SOSIK, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution MARK L.WILSON, University of Michigan MILTON A.WILTSE, Alaska Department of Natural Resources ROBERT S.WINOKUR, Earth Satellite Corporation ERIC F.WOOD, Princeton University MARTIN C.OFFUTT, Study Director, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems JOSEPH K.ALEXANDER, Director, Space Studies Board RICHARD LESHNER, Research Associate, Space Studies Board PANOLA GOLSON, Project Assistant, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems

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Review of NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise Applications Program Plan SPACE STUDIES BOARD JOHN H.McELROY, University of Texas at Arlington (retired), Chair ROGER P.ANGEL, University of Arizona JAMES P.BAGIAN, Veterans Health Administration’s National Center for Patient Safety ANA P.BARROS, Harvard University RETA F.BEEBE, New Mexico State University ROGER D.BLANDFORD, California Institute of Technology JAMES L.BURCH, Southwest Research Institute RADFORD BYERLY, JR., University of Colorado ROBERT E.CLELAND, University of Washington HOWARD M.EINSPAHR, Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute STEVEN H.FLAJSER, Loral Space and Communications Ltd. MICHAEL FREILICH, Oregon State University DON P.GIDDENS, Georgia Institute of Technology/Emory University RALPH H.JACOBSON, The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (retired) MARGARET G.KIVELSON, University of California, Los Angeles CONWAY LEOVY, University of Washington BRUCE D.MARCUS, TRW, Inc. (retired) HARRY Y.McSWEEN, JR., University of Tennessee GEORGE A.PAULIKAS, The Aerospace Corporation (retired) ANA-LOUISE REYSENBACH, Portland State University ROALD S.SAGDEEV, University of Maryland CAROLUS J.SCHRIJVER, Lockheed Martin ROBERT J.SERAFIN, National Center for Atmospheric Research MITCHELL SOGIN, Marine Biological Laboratory C.MEGAN URRY, Yale University PETER VOORHEES, Northwestern University J.CRAIG WHEELER, University of Texas, Austin JOSEPH K.ALEXANDER, Director

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Review of NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise Applications Program Plan Other Reports of the Space Studies Board Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences (2002) Life in the Universe: An Examination of U.S. and International Programs in Astrobiology (2002) New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy (2002) The Sun to the Earth—And Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy for Solar and Space Physics (2002) “Scientific Assessment of the Redesigned Space Interferometry Mission (SIM)” (2002) Assessment of the Usefulness and Availability of NASA’s Earth and Space Science Mission Data (2002) Safe on Mars: Precursor Measurements Necessary to Support Human Operations on the Martian Surface (2002) Toward New Partnerships in Remote Sensing: Government, the Private Sector, and Earth Science Research (2002) Assessment of Mars Science and Mission Priorities (2001) The Mission of Microgravity and Physical Sciences Research at NASA (2001) The Quarantine and Certification of Martian Samples (2001) Readiness Issues Related to Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences on the International Space Station (2001) “Scientific Assessment of the Descoped Mission Concept for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST)” (2001) Signs of Life: A Report Based on the April 2000 Workshop on Life Detection Techniques (2001) Transforming Remote Sensing Data into Information and Applications (2001) U.S. Astronomy and Astrophysics: Managing an Integrated Program (2001) Assessment of Mission Size Trade-offs for Earth and Space Science Missions (2000) Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPP and NPOESS Meteorological Satellites (2000) Future Biotechnology Research on the International Space Station (2000) Issues in the Integration of Research and Operational Satellite Systems for Climate Research: I. Science and Design (2000) Issues in the Integration of Research and Operational Satellite Systems for Climate Research: II. Implementation (2000) Microgravity Research in Support of Technologies for the Human Exploration and Development of Space and Planetary Bodies (2000) Preventing the Forward Contamination of Europa (2000) “On Continuing Assessment of Technology Development in NASA’s Office of Space Science” (2000) “On Review of Scientific Aspects of the NASA Triana Mission” (2000) “On the Space Science Enterprise Draft Strategic Plan” (2000) Review of NASA’s Biomedical Research Program (2000) Review of NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise Research Strategy for 2000–2010 (2000) The Role of Small Satellites in NASA and NOAA Earth Observation Programs (2000) “Assessment of NASA’s Plans for Post-2002 Earth Observing Missions” (1999) Institutional Arrangements for Space Station Research (1999) Radiation and the International Space Station: Recommendations to Reduce Risk (1999) A Science Strategy for the Exploration of Europa (1999) A Scientific Rationale for Mobility in Planetary Environments (1999) Size Limits of Very Small Microorganisms: Proceedings of a Workshop (1999) U.S.-European-Japanese Workshop on Space Cooperation: Summary Report (1999) Copies of these reports are available free of charge from: Space Studies Board National Research Council 500 5th Street NW Washington, DC 20001 (202) 334–3477 ssb@nas.edu www.nationalacademies.org/ssb/ssb.html

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Review of NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise Applications Program Plan Preface NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) has developed a draft strategic plan, Earth Science Enterprise Applications Strategy for 2002–2012, for the ESE Applications Program. The Committee to Review NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise Applications Strategy was established under the auspices of the Space Studies Board to review the January 2002 document, with particular emphasis on the following (see Appendix A): Examination of the overall goals, strategy, and approach for the program; Review of the planning and prioritization process, operations concept, expected program results or deliverables, and performance measures; and Assessment of how well the approach outlined in the plan will serve to advance NASA’s stated goals and objectives for the ESE Applications Program. The plan describes the direction of the ESE Applications Program for the period from 2002 through 2012. The document includes the program mission, goals, planning strategy, a concept of operations to implement the strategy, and performance measures by which to evaluate the program. In conducting its study, the committee considered several sources of input: previous National Research Council (NRC) reports, briefings and supplementary material provided by NASA, and discussions with representatives of the Office of Management and Budget, congressional staff, and two of NASA’s collaborating agencies—the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The committee would like to acknowledge the following individuals who briefed the committee or provided other input: Ghassem Asrar (NASA), Ron Birk (NASA), Paul Carliner (Senate Appropriations Committee), Marie Colton (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Claire Drury (Federal Emergency Management Agency), Sarah Horrigan (Office of Management and Budget), Margaret Lawless (Federal Emergency Management Agency), Scott McAfee (Federal Emergency Management Agency), Matt Miller (Federal Emergency Management Agency), Scott Pace (NASA), Rose Parkes (Federal Emergency Management Agency), Edward Sheffner (NASA), and Greg Williams (NASA). This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Susan Avery, University of Colorado, Efi Foufoula, University of Minnesota,

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Review of NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise Applications Program Plan Inez Fung, University of California at Berkeley, Robert Huggett, Michigan State University, and Mark Schaefer, NatureServe. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by William J.Merrell, Jr., Texas A&M University. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Review of NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise Applications Program Plan Contents I   Introduction   1 II   General Findings and Recommendations   5 III   Section-Specific Findings and Recommendations   8 IV   Summary   17 Appendix A   Letter of Request   18 Appendix B   NASA’s Summary of Evolution in Strategy   19 Appendix C   Committee Member Biographies   20

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