Appendix A
Executive Summary and Table of Contents from ASR Regional Study Draft Project Management Plan CERP, May 2002

Executive Summary

In April 1999, the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) proposed large-scale development of Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) facilities as the preferred method of providing additional freshwater storage required for overall restoration success. Six ASR components will collectively form the proposed CERP ASR System, which includes a total of 333 ASR wells and related surface facilities at the general locations in attached Figure A. All proposed ASR wells have a target capacity of 5 mgd (million gallons per day). Water treatment facilities were also included in the conceptual CERP ASR components. Total cost of the proposed CERP ASR System is approximately $1,700,000,000. The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Jacksonville District and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) are 50/50 cost sharing partners for design studies required prior to implementation of any large-scale CERP ASR facilities.

An independent scientific review of the conceptual CERP ASR System was completed in July 1999 by the ASR Issue Team, which was formed at the request of the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Task Force’s Working Group. Later the Working Group also engaged the National Academy of Sciences’ Committee for the Restoration of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem (CROGEE) to review preliminary drafts of the project management plans (PMPs) for the Lake Okeechobee and Hillsboro ASR Pilot Projects, which resulted in their report dated February 2001. The ASR Issue Team identified seven broad technical uncertainties related to ASR implementation on the unprecedented scale proposed in the CERP. These seven issues are listed in Table 1, which also identifies proposed local-scale (pilot project) and regional-scale scientific studies required to address these issues. The CROGEE concluded that additional scientific studies are needed, including work to improve understanding of the regional hydrogeology, hydraulic properties, potential changes in water quality, and the effects, if any, of those changes on aquatic ecosystems.

Local-scale studies have been initiated in the form of three ASR Pilot Projects as recommended in the CERP. In general terms, these pilot project studies will develop site-specific data related to local water quality and hydrogeology, identify appropriate water treatment processes, and determine the feasibility of 5 mgd capacity ASR wells at each pilot locations. Figures in Appendix B of this PMP show the locations and summarize the details of the Lake Okeechobee, Hillsboro and Caloosahatchee ASR Pilot Projects. As noted above, the CROGEE ASR subcommittee previously reviewed the draft PMPs for the Lake Okeechobee and Hillsboro ASR Pilot Projects. Their report, dated February 2001, provided a technical critique of the ASR Pilot Project studies and strongly concurred with the Corps and SFWMD plan for a



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Regional Issues in Aquifer Storage and Recovery for Everglades Restoration Appendix A Executive Summary and Table of Contents from ASR Regional Study Draft Project Management Plan CERP, May 2002 Executive Summary In April 1999, the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) proposed large-scale development of Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) facilities as the preferred method of providing additional freshwater storage required for overall restoration success. Six ASR components will collectively form the proposed CERP ASR System, which includes a total of 333 ASR wells and related surface facilities at the general locations in attached Figure A. All proposed ASR wells have a target capacity of 5 mgd (million gallons per day). Water treatment facilities were also included in the conceptual CERP ASR components. Total cost of the proposed CERP ASR System is approximately $1,700,000,000. The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Jacksonville District and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) are 50/50 cost sharing partners for design studies required prior to implementation of any large-scale CERP ASR facilities. An independent scientific review of the conceptual CERP ASR System was completed in July 1999 by the ASR Issue Team, which was formed at the request of the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Task Force’s Working Group. Later the Working Group also engaged the National Academy of Sciences’ Committee for the Restoration of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem (CROGEE) to review preliminary drafts of the project management plans (PMPs) for the Lake Okeechobee and Hillsboro ASR Pilot Projects, which resulted in their report dated February 2001. The ASR Issue Team identified seven broad technical uncertainties related to ASR implementation on the unprecedented scale proposed in the CERP. These seven issues are listed in Table 1, which also identifies proposed local-scale (pilot project) and regional-scale scientific studies required to address these issues. The CROGEE concluded that additional scientific studies are needed, including work to improve understanding of the regional hydrogeology, hydraulic properties, potential changes in water quality, and the effects, if any, of those changes on aquatic ecosystems. Local-scale studies have been initiated in the form of three ASR Pilot Projects as recommended in the CERP. In general terms, these pilot project studies will develop site-specific data related to local water quality and hydrogeology, identify appropriate water treatment processes, and determine the feasibility of 5 mgd capacity ASR wells at each pilot locations. Figures in Appendix B of this PMP show the locations and summarize the details of the Lake Okeechobee, Hillsboro and Caloosahatchee ASR Pilot Projects. As noted above, the CROGEE ASR subcommittee previously reviewed the draft PMPs for the Lake Okeechobee and Hillsboro ASR Pilot Projects. Their report, dated February 2001, provided a technical critique of the ASR Pilot Project studies and strongly concurred with the Corps and SFWMD plan for a

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Regional Issues in Aquifer Storage and Recovery for Everglades Restoration concurrent ASR Regional Study to address ASR Issues beyond the limited geographic scope of the pilot projects. The attached draft PMP for the CERP ASR Regional Study has been prepared in response to the need for additional scientific studies to address potential regional impacts related to the unprecedented large scale of the proposed CERP ASR System (333 wells). This draft PMP represents the collective efforts of a large interagency project delivery team (PDT) with representatives from the following local, state and federal government agencies that actively participated in its development: Broward County Water Resources Management Miami-Dade County Water and Sewer Department Palm Beach County Water Utilities Department South Florida Water Management District Florida Department of Environmental Protection Florida Geological Survey Florida Department of Agricultural and Community Services U.S. Department of Interior, Everglades Ecosystem Restoration Task Force U.S. Environmental Protection Agency U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Geological Survey U.S. Army Corps of Engineers PDT members began PMP development by preparing the following mission statement: “The ASR Regional Study will investigate regional technical and regulatory issues governing the feasibility of full-scale ASR implementation, as identified in the CERP, and develop tools to assess the feasibility and increase the level of certainty of successful ASR implementation.” Primary goals of the ASR Regional Study are to: Address outstanding issues of a regional nature that cannot be adequately addressed by the authorized ASR Pilot Projects Reduce uncertainties related to full-scale CERP ASR implementation by conducting scientific studies based on existing and newly acquired data and evaluate potential effects on water levels and water quality within the aquifer systems, and on existing users, surface-water bodies, and the flora and fauna that inhabit them. Develop a regional groundwater model of the Floridan Aquifer System (FAS) and conduct predictive simulations to evaluate the technical feasibility of the proposed 333-well CERP ASR system, or if determined to be infeasible, identify an appropriate magnitude of ASR capacity with minimal impact to the environment and existing users of the FAS. The PDT’s plan to achieve these goals, as described in this PMP, is to identify and conduct a series of tasks that will develop scientific data to address each of the issues of concern. Many of these tasks are inter-related, and assist in addressing multiple issues. Table 2 presents a summary of major tasks to be conducted in the ASR Regional Study, and cross-references these tasks with the issues raised by the ASR Issue Team.

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Regional Issues in Aquifer Storage and Recovery for Everglades Restoration While the CERP did not directly call for an ASR Regional Study, the Corps and SFWMD agree that a coordinated central data collection and regional modeling effort is required to address large-scale ASR implementation issues. In addition to budget amounts for the ASR Pilot Projects, the CERP April 1999 budget included a total of approximately $128,000,000 for ASR related Planning, Engineering and Design studies for the six (6) proposed ASR components identified on Figure A. Funds for the studies outlined in this document will be provided from the established CERP ASR design budget. The ASR Regional Study described in this PMP will take roughly 9 years to complete and has a budgeted cost including contingency funds of approximately $45,000,000. This study will conduct critical ASR related studies and develop scientific data required to help determine the engineering feasibility of large-scale ASR implementation as proposed in the CERP.

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Regional Issues in Aquifer Storage and Recovery for Everglades Restoration TABLE 1 Summary of ASR Issue Team Items Issue Team Item Pilots/Regional Tasks 1. Characterization/Suitability of the Quality of Prospective Source Waters; Spatial and Temporal Variability Pilot Projects - Local Source Water Quality Characterization Regional Study - Regional Water Quality Characterization 2. Characterization of the Regional Hydrogeology of the Upper Floridan Aquifer: Hydraulic Properties and Water Quality Regional Study - Regional Hydrogeologic Evaluation - Test/Monitor Well Drilling & Tests - Seismic Reflection Survey - Geochemistry Studies Pilot Projects - ASR/Monitor Well Drilling, Background Water Quality 3. Analysis of Critical Pressure for Rock Fracturing Regional Study - Rock Fracturing Desk Top Analysis - Regional Groundwater Modeling Pilot Projects - Laboratory Analysis of Cores 4. Analysis of Site and Regional Changes in Head and Patterns of Flow Regional Study - Regional Potentiometric Head (Literature Review) - Field Measurements - Regional Groundwater Modeling Pilot Projects Potentiometric Head Measurements at ASR/Monitor Wells (Background and Cycle Testing) 5. Analysis of Water Quality Changes During Movement and Storage in the Aquifer Pilot Projects - Local Source Water Quality Characterization Program - Background Floridan Aquifer Water Quality - Cycle Testing Water Quality Regional Study - Regional Groundwater Modeling - Geochemical Modeling 6. Aquifer Storage and Recovery Potential Effects on Mercury Bioaccumulation for South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Projects Pilot Projects - Local Source Water Quality Characterization Program - Cycle Testing Water Quality Regional Study - Regional Water Quality Measurements 7. Relationship between ASR Storage Properties, Recovery Rates and Recharge Volume Pilot Projects - Specific Capacity Tests, Geophysical Logs, Cores - Cycle Testing Water Levels, Water Quality Regional Study - Regional Groundwater Modeling - Geochemical Modeling

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Regional Issues in Aquifer Storage and Recovery for Everglades Restoration ASR Regional Study Draft Project Management Plan Table of Contents 1.1 List of Figures 1 1.2 List of Acronyms 2 1.3 List of Project Management Plan Preparers 5 2.0 PROJECT INFORMATION 6 2.1 Project Background 6 2.2 Authority/Authorization 10 2.2.1 Federal Authority 10 2.2.2 State Authority 10 2.3 Related Projects 11 2.3.1 CERP Lake Okeechobee ASR Pilot Project 11 2.3.2 CERP Hillsboro ASR Pilot Project 12 2.3.3 CERP Caloosahatchee River ASR Pilot Project 12 2.3.4 Southwest Florida Feasibility Study 12 3.0 PROJECT SCOPE 14 3.1 Project Goals and Objectives 15 3.2 Description of CERP Components 15 3.3 Project Constraints and Assumptions 16 3.4 Technical Tasks Descriptions 16 3.4.1 TASK 1—Build Inventory of Existing Data and Information 17 3.4.2 TASK 2—Evaluation of Drilling and Geophysical Methods 18 3.4.3 TASK 3—Define Preliminary Hydrogeologic Framework 19 3.4.4 TASK 4—Geochemistry 20 3.4.5 TASK 5—Pressure Induced Changes 31 3.4.6 TASK 6—Hydrogeologic Field Data Collection 32 3.4.7 TASK 7—Laboratory Analyses 43 3.4.8 TASK 8—Finalize Conceptual Hydrogeologic Framework 49 3.4.9 TASK 9—Regional Groundwater Modeling 50 3.4.10 TASK 10—Surface Water Quality Data Analysis 54 3.4.11 TASK 11—Water Quality Monitoring of Source and Receiving Waters 57 3.4.12 TASK 12—Surface Water Quality Modeling 59 3.4.13 TASK 13—Ecotoxicological and Ecological Field Studies 62 3.4.14 TASK 14—Project Summary Reporting 66 4.0 SUMMARY OF AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 67 4.1 Responsibility Identification 67 5.0 PROJECT CHANGES 68 5.1 List of PMP Updates and Revisions 68 5.2 Changes in Project Schedule and Cost 68 5.2.1 Changes in Project Schedule 68 5.2.2 Changes in Project Cost Estimates 69

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Regional Issues in Aquifer Storage and Recovery for Everglades Restoration 6.0 FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT 70 6.1 Cost Estimates 70 6.2 Project Annual Budget 70 6.3 Cost Listing by Organization 70 7.0 FUNCTIONAL AREA PLANS 71 7.1 Project Management 71 7.2 Project Formulation 71 7.3 Engineering and Design 71 7.3.1 Introduction 71 7.4 Construction 73 7.5 Real Estate 74 7.6 Contracting and Acquisition 74 7.7 Quality Control 74 7.7.1 Quality Control Plan 74 7.7.2 Independent Technical Review 75 7.8 Public Outreach and Involvement 75 7.8.1 General 75 7.8.2 What Public Outreach Is and Is Not 76 7.8.3 Why Public Outreach is Important 76 7.8.4 Public Outreach Goals 77 7.8.5 Information 77 7.8.6 Public, Stakeholder and Agency Involvement 78 7.8.7 Identify Target Audiences 78 7.8.8 Outreach to Minority and Socially and Economically Disadvantaged Communities 80 7.8.9 Partnering with Others 80 7.8.10 Strategy for the Project Outreach Plan 81 7.9 Environmental Compliance and Studies 81 7.9.1 Federal Compliance 81 7.9.2 US Fish & Wildlife Service 83 7.9.3 Water Quality 83 7.9.4 Ecological and Ecotoxicological Studies 88 7.9.5 State Compliance 89 7.9.6 Permits 90 7.10 Value Engineering (VE) 92 7.11 Operations and Maintenance 92 7.12 Environmental and Economic Equity 92 7.13 Restoration Coordination and Verification (RECOVER) Integration 93 8.0 UNIQUE FEATURES 98 8.1 Regulatory Guidance on Tracer Tests for CERP Pilot Project Wells 98 8.2 Project Issues Related to the unprecedented Large Scale ASR 99

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Regional Issues in Aquifer Storage and Recovery for Everglades Restoration APPENDICES APPENDIX A—LIST OF PROJECT DELIVERY TEAM MEMBERS APPENDIX B—PROJECT MAP APPENDIX C—WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE TAB A—Activity Listing by WBS TAB B—Activity ID/WBS Cross-Reference TAB C—Tasks and Issues APPENDIX D—PROJECT SCHEDULE TAB A—Gantt Chart for Current Phase TAB B—Project Milestone Report APPENCIX E—PROJECT COST ESTIMATE AND BUDGET TAB A—Total Project Cost Summary TAB B—Fully Funded Cost Estimate (Post PIR Only) TAB C—Cost Listing by Agency/Organizational Unit TAB D—Projected Annual Budget TAB E—Project Cash Flow Curve TAB F—Contingency Summary and Status APPENDIX F—FUNCTIONAL AREA PLANS TAB A—Activities by Agency, Organizational Unit, and Resource TAB B—Cost Allocation by Fiscal Year TAB C—Geochem—Water Quality Sampling TAB D—Geochem—Rock Chemistry APPENDIX G—CONTRACTING ACQUISITION PLAN APPENDIX H—QUALITY CONTROL PLAN TAB A—Independent Technical Review Plan TAB B—Statement of Technical and Legal Review APPENDIX I—PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT APPENDIX J—LIST OF REFERENCE DOCUMENTS APPENDIX K—LIST OF PMP UPDATES AND REVISIONS APPENDIX L—ECOLOGICAL AND WATER QUALITY STUDIES