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Bioavailability of Contaminants in Soils and Sediments: Processes, Tools, and Applications
FIGURE 1-1 Bioavailability processes in soil or sediment. Note that A, B, and C can occur internal to an organism such as in the lumen of the gut.
through the gut membrane of an organism (e.g., the intestinal epithelium of a mammal). Exposure to both dissolved and solid-bound contaminants can lead to chemical interaction with the membrane of an organism and subsequent uptake or absorption (these terms are used synonymously). “E” in Figure 1-1 refers to paths taken by the chemical following uptake across a membrane. For example, after passage across a biological membrane the chemical can exert a toxic effect within a particular tissue (among many possibilities).
It should be noted that A, B, and C in Figure 1-1 are sometimes considered to be fate and transport processes (which they are) rather than bioavailability processes. On the other hand, process D is more traditionally associated with bioavailability in contemporary risk assessment. The committee’s definition of “bioavailability processes” incorporates all the steps that take a chemical from being bound or isolated in soil or sediment to being taken up into an organism (A through D). Figure 1-1 makes it clear that soils and sediments can affect exposure in various ways, both external and internal to the organism. For example, solid phases influence the extent of contaminant transfer from one medium to another, thereby determining soluble chemical concentrations. There is also differential uptake of contaminants into animals and plants depending on whether they are solubilized or solid-bound. Although of great importance in determining the overall effect of a contaminant on an organism, E processes—the toxic action or metabolic effect of a chemical—are not defined as bioavailability processes per se because soil and sediment are no longer a factor. However, because E processes are often measured endpoints, they are described at length in Chapters 3 and 4.