Information Technology and Manufacturing

A Preliminary Report on Research Needs

Committee to Study Information Technology and Manufacturing

Computer Science and Telecommunications Board

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

Manufacturing Studies Board

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

National Academy Press
Washington, D.C.
1993



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Information Technology and Manufacturing: A Preliminary Report on Research Needs Information Technology and Manufacturing A Preliminary Report on Research Needs Committee to Study Information Technology and Manufacturing Computer Science and Telecommunications Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications Manufacturing Studies Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1993

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Information Technology and Manufacturing: A Preliminary Report on Research Needs NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M.White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I.Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Robert M.White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this project was provided by the National Science Foundation (under Grant No. MIP-93/2296). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Available from: Computer Science and Telecommunications Board and Manufacturing Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 Copyright 1993 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Information Technology and Manufacturing: A Preliminary Report on Research Needs COMMITTEE TO STUDY INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND MANUFACTURING PETER WILL, USC/Information Sciences Institute, Chair BARBARA M.FOSSUM, University of Texas DENNIS M.HOGAN, Dennis M.Hogan Associates NEAL LAURANCE, Ford Motor Company KEN J.LINDSAY, Northrop Aircraft Division EUGENE S.MEIERAN, Intel Corporation RAJ REDDY, Carnegie Mellon University WYCKHAM D.SEELIG, AT&T Network Systems GILBERT S.STAFFEND, Allied Signal Automotive IVAN E.SUTHERLAND, Sun Microsystems Laboratories Inc. LOUISE H.TREVILLYAN, IBM T.J.Watson Research Center DANIEL E.WHITNEY, Charles Stark Draper Laboratory Inc. EUGENE WONG, University of California at Berkeley PAUL K.WRIGHT, University of California at Berkeley RICHARD A.WYSK, Texas A&M University ROBERT E.KAHN, Corporation for National Research Initiatives, Special Advisor Staff MARJORY BLUMENTHAL, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board THOMAS C.MAHONEY, Manufacturing Studies Board MICHAEL A.McDERMOTT, Manufacturing Studies Board GREG MEDALIE, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board LESLIE WADE, Project Assistant

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Information Technology and Manufacturing: A Preliminary Report on Research Needs COMPUTER SCIENCE AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BOARD WILLIAM WULF, University of Virginia, Chair RUZENA BAJCSY, University of Pennsylvania JEFF DOZIER, University of California at Santa Barbara DAVID J.FARBER, University of Pennsylvania HENRY FUCHS, University of North Carolina CHARLES GESCHKE, Adobe Systems Inc. JAMES GRAY, Digital Equipment Corporation JOHN L.HENNESSY, Stanford University DEBORAH A.JOSEPH, University of Wisconsin RICHARD M.KARP, University of California at Berkeley KEN KENNEDY, Rice University BUTLER W.LAMPSON, Digital Equipment Corporation BARBARA LISKOV, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ROBERT L.MARTIN, Bell Communications Research DAVID G.MESSERSCHMITT, University of California at Berkeley ABRAHAM PELED, IBM T.J.Watson Research Center (until 08/13/93) WILLIAM PRESS, Harvard University CHARLES L.SEITZ, California Institute of Technology MARY SHAW, Carnegie Mellon University EDWARD SHORTLIFFE, Stanford University School of Medicine CASMIR S.SKRZYPCZAK, NYNEX Inc. LAWRENCE T.TESLER, Apple Computer Inc. LESLIE L.VADASZ, Intel Corporation MARJORY S.BLUMENTHAL, Director HERBERT S.LIN, Senior Staff Officer GREG MEDALIE, Staff Officer JAMES MALLORY, Staff Officer RENEE A.HAWKINS, Staff Associate GLORIA BEMAH, Administrative Assistant JANET QUARLES, Project Assistant LESLIE WADE, Project Assistant

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Information Technology and Manufacturing: A Preliminary Report on Research Needs MANUFACTURING STUDIES BOARD CHARLES P.FLETCHER, Aluminum Company of America, Chair SARA L.BECKMAN, University of California at Berkeley LESLIE A.BENMARK, E.I.DuPont de Nemours & Co. Inc. STEVEN J.BOMBA, Johnson Controls, Inc. BRIAN E.BOYER, Northrop Aircraft Division GARY L.COWGER, General Motors Corporation HAROLD E.EDMONDSON, Hewlett-Packard (retired) THOMAS G.GUNN, Gunn Associates Inc. ALISTAIR M.HANNA, McKinsey & Co. Inc. GEORGE J.HESS, The Ingersoll Milling Machine Co. CHARLES W.HOOVER, JR., Polytechnic University STEPHEN C.JACOBSEN, University of Utah RAMCHANDRAN JAIKUMAR, Harvard University J.B.JONES, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University DONALD KENNEDY, International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers THOMAS L.MAGNANTI, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOE M.MIZE, Oklahoma State University JACOB T.SCHWARTZ, New York University HERBERT B.VOELCKER, Cornell University PAUL K.WRIGHT, University of California at Berkeley THOMAS C.MAHONEY, Director MICHAEL A.McDERMOTT, Program Officer VERNA J.BOWEN, Staff Assistant LUCY V.FUSCO, Staff Assistant

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Information Technology and Manufacturing: A Preliminary Report on Research Needs COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS RICHARD N.ZARE, Stanford University, Chair RICHARD S.NICHOLSON, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Vice-Chair JOHN A.ARMSTRONG, IBM Corporation SYLVIA T.CEYER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology GEORGE W.CLARK, Massachusetts Institute of Technology AVNER FRIEDMAN, University of Minnesota SUSAN L.GRAHAM, University of California at Berkeley ROBERT J.HERMANN, United Technologies Corporation NEAL F.LANE, Rice University CLAIRE E.MAX, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory CHRISTOPHER F.McKEE, University of California at Berkeley JAMES W.MITCHELL, AT&T Bell Laboratories JEROME SACKS, National Institute of Statistical Sciences A.RICHARD SEEBASS III, University of Colorado CHARLES P.SLICHTER, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ALVIN W.TRIVELPIECE, Oak Ridge National Laboratory NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director

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Information Technology and Manufacturing: A Preliminary Report on Research Needs COMMISSION ON ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL SYSTEMS ALBERT R.C.WESTWOOD, Martin Marietta Corporation, Chair NANCY RUTLEDGE CONNERY, Consultant RICHARD A.CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation GERARD W.ELVERUM, JR., TRW Inc. (retired) E.R. (VALD) HEIBERG III, J.A.Jones Construction Company WILLIAM G.HOWARD, JR., Consultant JOHN McCARTHY, Stanford University ALTON D.SLAY, Slay Enterprises Inc. JAMES J.SOLBERG, Purdue University CHARLES F.TIFFANY, Boeing Military Airplane Company (retired) JOHN A.TILLINGHAST, Tiltec PAUL TORGERSON, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University GEORGE L.TURIN, Teknekron Corporation JOHN B.WACHTMAN, JR., Rutgers University BRIAN J.WATT, Joy Environmental Technology WILLIAM C.WEBSTER, University of California at Berkeley ROBERT V.WHITMAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ARCHIE L.WOOD, Executive Director

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Information Technology and Manufacturing: A Preliminary Report on Research Needs Preface At the request of the National Science Foundation, the National Research Council’s Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB) and Manufacturing Studies Board (MSB) formed the Committee to Study Information Technology and Manufacturing in April 1993. The committee of 16 individuals from academia and industry was charged with determining the computer science and engineering research needed to support advanced manufacturing. In preparing this first of two reports, the committee reviewed and synthesized relevant material from recent reports and initiatives, interviewed a number of researchers and practitioners in the field, and met twice to discuss the input from these sources as well as the independent observations and findings of the committee members themselves. The committee, which benefited from its heterogeneous composition, included experts from the information technology and the manufacturing domains, individuals involved in research and development as well as implementation, and individuals experienced in the manufacture of mechanical and electronic products. The committee focused on articulating a vision of manufacturing in the year 2010 (sometimes referred to as the 21st century vision), identifying the obstacles to achieving the vision, and identifying research topics that address the obstacles. Its deliberations centered on the three thrusts outlined by the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET) in its Advanced Manufacturing Technology Initiative: “Intelligent” manufacturing equipment and systems, Integrated tools for product, process, and enterprise design, and Advanced manufacturing technology infrastructure. The range and combination of research topics recommended by the committee are an essential feature of this report. Some of the topics chosen by the committee have been proposed in prior reports (these are pointed out in chapter end notes and in the bibliography); the need for work in some areas is enduring. Some topics fall into areas of long-standing need but are advanced with new emphases. Because of limited time, the committee was unable to assess in depth the topics it identified. The second report of the committee, to be released in late 1994, will further address issues presented in this preliminary report and will consider related issues. The CSTB and MSB are grateful to the National Science Foundation, to those who made presentations and/or submitted written material to the committee, and to those who reviewed this report. The committee, of course, remains responsible for the report’s content.

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Information Technology and Manufacturing: A Preliminary Report on Research Needs Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW   4     The New Shape of Manufacturing in the Information Age,   4     Information Technology and the Transformation of Manufacturing,   5     A Matrix of Manufacturing Needs,   7     Organization of This Report,   8     Caveats,   10     Note,   10 2   INTEGRATED PRODUCT AND PROCESS DESIGN   11     Manufacturing-Specific Research,   12     Design by Function,   12     Product-Process Data Model,   14     Capture of Nominal and Variant Behavior,   14     Design Methods and Tools for Groups of Parts and Systems,   15     Process Description,   15     Novel Design Considerations,   16     Non-Manufacturing-Specific Research,   16     Decision Aids,   16     Geometric Reasoning,   17     Knowledge and Information Management,   17     Notes,   17 3   SHOP FLOOR AND PRODUCTION SYSTEMS   21     Manufacturing-Specific Research,   24     Equipment Controls,   24     Sensors,   24     Dynamic Scheduling,   25     Intelligent Routing Systems,   26     Smart Parts,   26     Modeling of Manufacturing Systems—The Virtual Factory,   27     Rapidly Reconfigurable Production Systems,   28     Resource Description Models,   28

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Information Technology and Manufacturing: A Preliminary Report on Research Needs     Knowledge Bases for New Process Methods,   29     Non-Manufacturing-Specific Research,   29     Complex Systems Theory,   29     Notes,   29 4   INFRASTRUCTURE   31     Manufacturing-Specific Research,   31     Architectures and Standards,   31     Data Communications Networks,   34     Database Systems,   35     Architectures for Autonomy and Distributed Intelligence,   36     Enterprise and Inter-enterprise Integration,   36     Non-Manufacturing-Specific Research,   38     Software Engineering,   38     Dependable Computing Systems,   40     Collaboration Technology/Computer-Supported Cooperative Work,   41     Notes,   41 5   NONRESEARCH LEVERAGE POINTS   43     Technology Transfer and Academic-Industrial Interaction,   43     Implementation Issues,   45     Education, Training, and Retraining,   46     Notes,   48     BIBLIOGRAPHY   49     APPENDIXES         A Future Manufacturing Environment—One Person’s View,   61     B Advisors from Academia and Industry,   64