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~ - B Non-Lethal Weapons Technology Table The Committee for an Assessment of Non-Lethal Weapons Science and Technology undertook a survey and assessment of non-lethal weapons technolo- gies as described in Sections 2.1 and 3.2. Table B.1 provides a consolidated presentation of that effort. 119

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120 TABLE B. 1 Non-Lethal Wea ons Technolo ies P g APPENDIX B Type of Technology Comments If in Acquisiti ACOUSTIC TECHNOLOGIES Audible and ultrasonic Acoustic impact on personnel Acoustic impact on personnel underwater .. .~ Tests not reproducible in air; dependent on distance, and highly dependent on impedance match to personnel; not high priority; Gayle device is one such system; R&D funding ended in 1999. Results questionable, effects are unclear. Many different concepts have been proposed for creating acoustic sources capable of disabling a suspect. Effectiveness still unproven despite considerable study (problem: variability of effect and coupling energy into person). Acoustic coupling much higher in water than in air. Unaware of significant research on sonic NLWs for underwater use. Environmental impact must be assessed. Infrasound devices AC(~CSTIC/OPTICAL Flash bang Flash bang delivery systems XM84 acoustic/optical stun grenade 66-mm vehicle-launched non-lethal grenade Multisensory distraction device FIa:sl1 Some animal studies available on the effects of low-frequency sound on animals' behavior and task performance. Research apparently abandoned. Effective in some crowd dispersal situations and for clearing facilities. Flash-bang systems effective as a distraction; not as effective against high-level threats. Nonexplosive, flash grenade; uses array of flashbulbs.

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APPENDIX B 12 Missions cam ~ . ~ us at Pa If in Acquisition, Where? Human Effects ~ ~ m ~ ~ v, E u' Cal Currently not funded. Probably safe if sound level X X X X is low enough not to cause a permanent threshold shift in hearing. Concept. Human effects not totally X X X X known. Human tolerance to a single exposure has been studied. Effect of continuous exposure unknown. Committee meeting, June Human effects unknown. X X 13, 2001 (see preface). . ~ Human effects unknown. ? ? ? Being incorporated into existing delivery systems. . Probably safe if sound level is low enough not to cause a permanent threshold shift in hearing. Human effects unknown if subject is exposed at close range. X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Xv

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122 TABLE B.1 Continued APPENDIX B Type of Technology Comments . .... CHEMICALS/MATERIALS . ~ TECHNOLOGIES At:: Obscurants Smokes ~ ~-- If in Acquisiti Available for procurement with sophisticated delivery methods. Advanced obscurants, including IR capability ``Inks7, Reactants Combustion modifiers I. Mature technology, in use with various dispensers; IR capabilities relatively new. Could have application underwater as a disorienting tool. Antiadditives Fuel contaminants Lubricant contaminants 1Jepolymer~zatton agents Effective in testing; difficulty of delivering chemicals on moving targets a drawback. Two types have been tested: knock producers and engine runaway agents. Generally agents that counteract lubricant additives. Effective in 1 to 2 percent concentrations, and disable antiwear and antioxidant additives in the lubricant. Targets are internal combustion engines, turbines, and gear boxes. Compounds that cause stored fuels to thicken or otherwise become ineffective. Difficulty of delivery of materials can be a drawback. Generally a large amount of material is needed; the committee sees little prospect for much improvement of this characteristic. Difficulty of delivery of materials a drawback. Could be useful in some scenarios. Methods of delivery remain a problem. Demonstrated rubber depolymerizers were based on an oxidation mechanism. Current tires contain antioxidants not present in previous work.

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APPENDIX B 123 Missions cam ~ ~ .s ~:5 .> cow cast Is m E 2 ^, 2 i, > A ~ m s v, A If in Acquisition, Where? Human Effects ~ ;: ~ cn vat V cat ~ CQ X ? X X COTS. Probably safe for use X X against humans. Programs underway at Probably safe for use X X Sandia and elsewhere. against humans. Committee meeting, June Human effects unknown; X 13, 2001 (see preface). depends on chemical used. Former program at Antimateriel. X X ECBC. Proposed based on Antimateriel. previous work; program currently not active. X X Proposed. Antimateriel. X X Proposed. Antimateriel. Proposed; some testing Antimateriel. done in the past. 6 X X X X

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124 TABLE B.1 Continued APPENDIX B Type of Technology Comments If in Acquisiti Corrosive agents Difficulty of delivery of materials a drawback; precise placement needed. Corrosive materials Proposed to be useful against electrical components and other materiel. fl~hermites, propellants To fuse elements of metallic platform. Viscosity agents Fuel thickeners demonstrated; thixotropic gels. Difficulty of delivering chemicals is a drawback; little chance of extensive use. To dissolve "O" rings. ., Malodorants (e.g., scatole, mercaptans) Calmatives Calmative agent sponge projectile Riot; control agents Stepper spray (OC) acrimators (e.g., CS) Riot control grenade L96E 1 Systems under consideration potentially useful for area clearing and area denial. Preliminary exploration for police actions. Further research required involving effects, susceptibilities, safety, delivery methods, and so on. Studies needed of onset time vs. delivery method and mechanisms to control doses and exposures. To incapacitate personnel; sponge with fentanyl derivative delivers dose. Question: What is tolerance level for dose and personal susceptibility? Linking calmative with antidote extends margin of use. Evaluation of databases done involving chemical payloads, by ECBC; most of these are RCAs. Study of the use of CS, CN, OC summarized in IJ Research in Brief, March 1997. In use with police actions. Coast Guard needs high-accuracy, long-range dispensing systems. In use with police actions. Developed by UK Ministry of Defense; contains CS.

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APPENDIX B 125 Missions cam .s =5 at . ~ cam us ~ If in Acquisition, Where? Human Effects a u _ ~ ~ u ~ Li Antimateriel. Suggested. Antimateriel. ? Suggested by Sandia, Antimateriel. LLNL. ECBC. Suggested. ., X X X X Antimateriel. Antimateriel. CEP. Under study by ECBC after lull in R&D for 10 years. Human effects unknown; X X X X lingering effects a concern. Human effects known for X X X X some calmatives. Margin of error needs to be determined. Under study by ECBC Margin of error needs to be X X X X after lull in R&D for 10 determined. years. TIP study underway for . . me notary use, new potential systems. Available for procurement. Available for procurement. Hazard depends on dosage. X X X X Hazard depends on dosage. X X X X Hazard depends on dosage. X X X X Hazard depends on dosage and type of casing. X X X X

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126 TABLE B.1 Continued APPENDIX B Type of Technology Comments If in Acquisiti Slippery foams and agents Slippery foam Rigid foam HA Demonstrations effective; require large quantity of material to be delivered. When spread on a walkway, makes simply walking across the area difficult; degree of delay must be sufficient to be effective; large quantity of material must be used (logistics problem). Rigid polyurethane foam Sticky foams Sticky thermoplastic foam Underwater sticky foam Stabilized aqueous foam Contaminating abrasives Microfibers M,croencapsulation Appropriate in specific circumstances for local security measures; deemed not to be used on personnel directly due to potentially lethal effect (blocking respiration). Appropriate in specific circumstances for local security measures. Rapid dispersion and hardening of foam useful for base security and barrier functions. Developed for access delay, area denial, and target denial; an exceptionally tenacious material (difficult to clean up). Idea of underwater sticky foam discussed; however, work on this is unknown. Could be useful against swimmers and boats (to clog intakes). Large expansion ratio; for use as visual and acoustic isolation, and fire suppression; irritants could be added. Materials put into engines degrade precision parts. Technology assessment of genetic research on spider fibers (for super strength); terminated December 1998. Appears to have possible utility in delivery of malodorants or other chemicals? Design for pressure or temperature release needed.

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APPENDIX B 127 Missions ct 3 ~ Cam Cam O u - E If in Acquisition, Where? Human Effects e ~ O 0 O ~ c Academic research Hazard to moving vehicles, X X X underway. which may become involved in a fatal crash. Demonstrated. Persistent. X X X Academic research Principally used as a barrier. X X underway. Should not be used against individuals due to lethal potential for blocking respiration. . ~ Foam materials and dispensers made and tested at Sandia. Foam materials and dispensers made and tested at Sandia. Committee meeting, June 13, 2001 (see preface). Foam materials and dispensers made and tested at Sandia. Academic research underway. Should not be used against X X humans. Not to be used on personnel directly, due to potentially lethal effect (blocking . . respiration . Human effects unknown. Found to be safe for human X X X use. Antimateriel. Antimateriel. Depends on munition used. . . . X X

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128 TABLE B.1 Continued APPENDIX B Type of Technology Comments If in Acquisiti Cloggers Vessel exhaust stack Displacement hull boats/ships stopped with exhaust cover blocker delivered by helicopter. Operationally difficult to position over ship. ESB tested; difficult delivery a shortcoming; helicopter delivery terminated. Air intake blocker Thin film/fabric deployed over a battle tank and drawn tightly over the air intake by airflow. E;LECTRICALS Pulsed current Sticky shocker Stun guns Taser mine Capacitive discharge device for stopping vehicles in high- speed pursuit; test successful and more effective than HPM. Wireless projectile based on stun gun technology, barbs attach to clothing, High-voltage pulses incapacitate, range 10 m. Delivers high-voltage numbing current after delivery to person. Biological effects not understood well; under investigation. Law enforcement officials use frequently. Taser area denial device Will fire 20 sets of darts a distance of 15 ft; considered an area-denial device. Human effects study underway. Taper grenade Tetherless laser DIRECTED-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES EI~ECTROMAGNETIC WAVES Electromagnetic pulse Fires a volley of laser cartridges downrange. Research gap: need for a tetherless device with 90-m range. Non-nuclear EMP Intended to stop auto engines; not effective; terminated August 1998. Some continued interest in application to stopping ships.

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APPENDIX B 129 Missions u, ~ I:, 'D c m e c - If in Acquisition, Where? Human Effects l) ' m L CEP. Edgewood. OS&T/ARL. Antimateriel. Antimateriel. Antimateriel. Jaycor evaluation 2001. Human effects unknown. X X X Potential hazard of heart failure and death, particularly ,, in individuals with diseased hearts. COTS. TIP; demonstration 2000. X X X X Human effects not totally X X X known. Human effects not totally X X known. Human effects not totally X X X known. Human effects not totally X X known. Human effects not totally X X X known. Hazard depends on power used. X X

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APPENDIX B 137 Missions cat ~ cat .s PA ~ 3 , ~ ~ _ v' ,, E ~ s u s If in Acquisition, Where? Human Effects a ~ C ,, i,, a, ,, i, Developed by INEEL May result in lethal crash. X OLETC. COTS. Puncture and laceration risk. X Puncture and laceration risk. X X X X X X CEP. May cause injuries when X X stopping high-speed vehicles. - Materials and dispensers made and tested at Sandia. Foster Miller Co. product. Puncture and laceration risk. X X X X Probably safe for human use. X X Hazard of the casing needs X X study. Compressed air launch X X X from boat and helicopter demonstrated. Committee meeting, June 13, 2001 (see preface). X

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i. 138 TABLE B.1 Continued APPENDIX B Type of Technology Comments If in Acquisiti KINITIC-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES Blunt impact projectiles Sting balls, rubber balls, batons Non-lethal crowd dispersal round 66-mm vehicle-launched non-lethal grenade Beanbag rounds Sponge grenades Baton projectiles Ring air foil Fin-stabilized projectiles Coast Guard testing accurate trajectory rounds (foam form and fin stabilized) for 12-gauge shotgun. A 40-mm round with 48 sting balls. Degree of effectiveness and expected level of permanent damage being modeled; measures of effectiveness need to be determined. 66-mm vehicle-launched round with sting balls, 50- to 100-m range; the XM99 contains 200 rubber balls, each 0.4 g. Degree of effectiveness and expected level of permanent damage being modeled; measures of effectiveness need to be determined. Effective, but accuracy is relatively poor. USCG has chosen not to continue use. Soft, blunt nose minimizes injury while delivering sting. Rubber baton shapes fired in crowds for control. Donut-shaped projectile, more accurate than other NLW rounds; range: 40 m; OC-dispensing feature under development. Program halted despite positive results. Coast Guard tests underway. Water cannon Navy tactic for crowds and unruly situations close to ship. Technology opportunities exist for improved capability.

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APPENDIX B 139 Missions If in Acquisition, Where? Human Effects cn - ct . _ . ~ cat 3 ~ ~ ~ 0 an _ ~ ~ C) ._ ~ .~ ~ m O Ct > O ~ - 0 ~ i_ V) Cal ._ cn ._ .s V) ~ ,_ A U) Cal ~ O _ ~ U) ~ V) ~ it ~ i- ~ .s ~ 3 En V) o V) ~ CEP. . . - COTS. COTS. NIJ-Guilford Engineering. Available as a tactic. Human effects of heavier projectiles not totally known. Eight projectiles present hazards to the eye. Human effects not totally known. Eye hazard needs to be studied. X X X X X X Eye hazard needs to be X X X studied and human effect of . . . CaSlllg IS UllKllOWIl. Human effects not totally X X X known. Human effects not totally X X X known. Human effects not totally X X X known. Human effects not totally X X X known. Human effects not totally X X X known. Can be hazardous at X X X close range.

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~- 140 TABLE B.1 Continued APPENDIX B Type of Technology Comments If in Acquisiti Bounding non-lethal munition Modular crowd control munition (MCCM) Vortex ring gun Water barrier ship self-defense ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES SENSING TECHNOLOGY Electromagnetic Radar Wide/ultrawide band Pulsed radar IR focal plane array FLIR Contains 600 PVC sting balls. Degree of effectiveness and expected level of permanent damage being modeled; measures of effectiveness need to be determined. Demonstrated. Explosive detonation below water generates plume of water designed to prevent penetration by sea-skimming missiles. Similar technique might also be used to prevent small boats from penetrating defense. RF, microwave, optical sensors are extensive in DOD. Waterside security need for easily portable, quickly set-up system. Good for imaging through walls; available for procurement; short-pulse radar able to detect heartbeat and breathing through walls. New, inexpensive miniature transponders can improve short- range motion sensing, distance measurements, mine detection, explosives diagnostics, bridge inspection, and security measures; short-pulse radar able to detect heartbeat and breathing through walls. 128 x 128 solid-state focal plane array imager operating at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Waterside security need for easily portable, quickly set-up system.

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APPENDIX B 14 Missions us cat cot ~ 3 ._ .= ~ ._ ~ V, cn 3 ~ ~ ~ ~ v, ~ ~ ~ u 3 s O ~ _ c If in Acquisition, Where? Human Effects ~ ~ ~ c~~ vat A) vat : Human effects not totally X X X known. Human effects not totally X X X known. Hazard depends on munition X X X used. NSWCDD. t .. X X X X X X X Safe for humans at low power. Through-Wall Sensor working group, NIT, no power. funding 2000. LLNL. X X Safe for humans at low X X X Safe for humans at low X X X X X X power. NRL. No known human effects. X X X No known human effects. X X

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142 TABLE B.1 Continued APPENDIX B Type of Technology Comments If in Acquisiti Acoustic Bullet tracker Chemical Explosives detection Ground sensors Smart buoys ; f Appropriate for special situations. Two methods to track sniper's bullet exist, one based on acoustic sensors, the other on infrared sensors. Demonstrated capability to sense and point TV camera automatically in 0.3 s. Improved instruments are needed for detection from remote platforms (e.g., small UAV and handheld portable applications). Non-direct contact detection methodologies (standoff) very desirable but so far not possible. Unattended ground sensors to accompany non-lethal weapons operations to gather intelligence. Gather intelligence, broadcast warnings when deployed around ship's perimeter. Autonomous or semiautonomous control envisioned. TECHNOLOGIES TO DELIVER NLWs Weapon systems to deliver materials Mortars, grenade launchers, smoke generators Combustible mortar: testing underway; 81-mm mortar: testing underway; reducing integrity of shell to reduce lethality; effective over 25 m2. NEW launcher Launcher for NEW with variable velocity correlated with rangefinder to adjust exit velocity to distance of target. Overhead liquid dispersal system (OLDS) Small arms munition (;OICW) Device that bursts to dispense liquids or aerosols above designated area in isotropic pattern. Non-kinetic munition using airburst rounds for antipersonnel and antimateriel loads; 5- to 2,000-m range.

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APPENDIX B 143 Missions _ ~ ~ Hi, If in Acquisition, Where? Human Effects a U ~ ~ ~ .i 9 LO ~ a X X X Probably safe for human use. Safe for human use. Co-CINC sponsor. X X X Safe for human use. X X X X X Committee meeting, June 13, 2001 (see preface). Pre-Milestone A. TIP. Safe for human use. Munitions of large mass can present human hazards. Lightweight projectiles present eye hazards. Grenade casings can be injurious. Lower risk of injury than X from velocity weapons. Still need to know human tolerance to munitions. Hazard depends on munition X X used. Pre-Milestone A. Hazard depends on munition X X used. X X

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144 TABLE B.1 Continued APPENDIX B Type of Technology Comments If in Acquisit Attachment to guns (rifles, pistols, shotguns, machine guns, naval guns) Under-weapon OC dispenser Missiles, rockets Bombs Smart fish i .. in Under-barrel tactical delivery system (pneumatic); Service interest not yet obvious. Lightweight, 15-ft range. ERGM design and analysis underway; frangible or combustible casings under study to develop non-lethal delivery; 2.75-inch rocket platform being studied for NEW applications. Minnow Torpedoes Mines (JAVs NEW dispenser drone Unmanned powered parafoil Pioneer remotely piloted vehicle Munition dropped upstream from hydroelectric plant enters penstock to disable power plant; claim of estimate of 14-day disruption to make repairs (seems to be unreasonably short). Small munition able to enter cooling pond and cooling lines to heat exchanger, then detonate. Minimal investigation for NLWs. Non-lethal mines considered on many occasions on land; little consideration for them in water. Testing underway for numerous scenarios (extensively studied for many tactical situations, lethal and non-lethal). Hand- launched UAVs desirable for ship's perimeter protection. LEWK, FASM are examples; loitering submunition study made. LEWK currently being tested in prototype. Dragon drone; aerial dispenser system for various NLWs; uses GPS-guided dispensing system. Unmanned powered parafoil as remote-controlled aerial spray dispenser for NLWs. Concept: reconnaissance, surveillance, target acquisition, short out power lines, artillery adjustment, damage assessment.

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APPENDIX B 145 Missions ct ~ .= G) 3 <, c' ~ ~ v' c,, o u O O , 3 U o ~ o U If in Acquisition, Where? Human Effects a u ~ ~ ~ u Hazard depends on munition X X used. 2000, MCWL. Human and environmental effects unknown. CEP. JFC. ., s X X Hazard depends on munition used. An t i m ate ri e l LLNL. Antimateriel Hazard depends on munition used. Hazard depends on munition X X X X used. Hazard depends on . . munltlon used. X 1996, MCWL, NSWC, Hazard depends on munition X X X Indian Head. used. 1997, EBCC, NSWCDD. Hazard depends on munition X X used. Antimateriel. X X X X X

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146 TABLE B. 1 Continued - APPENDIX B Type of Technology Comments If in Acquisiti MAVs Land vehicles Robots Robotic jet ski , ~ Hand-launched electrically powered microplanes as platforms to place tags and sensors and munitions. Variety of wheeled and tracked vehicles from a primary platform for strategy and tactics for using NLWs. Applications examined for bridge defense, perimeter security, in-building communication relay; airfield denial. Research ongoing, studying decentralized control of cooperative robots to carry out tasks such as communication relay, navigation, searching, and intrusion detection. Prototype demonstrated as potential sensor or weapons platform. Demonstration with RGES for stopping small boats is underway. A prototype "RC Ship Sentinel" is undergoing tests (June 2001). UUVs MARKERS, DYES, AND TAGGANTS UV-light visible IR+visible reactive ~Pa~ ball guns Taggers active RF taggant Laster designator around perimeter UUVs have potential to detect, interrogate, and deliver NLWs. One form of a much broader set of dyes, markers, and taggants that can be useful for both identification and psychological operations. Many commercially available materials in use to mark and identify people and vehicles. For friend-or-foe identification. Additive to fuel that makes exhaust emit IR signature. Commercially available; potentially useful to deliver chemical agents. Using GPS and transmitter, encase taggant in a "super sticky bullet" to pinpoint fleeing vehicles. Systems ready to be produced if customer identified. Idea to "paint" perimeter warning lines on water around ship with scanning laser.

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APPENDIX B 147 Missions con ~ can ~ Is ._ ._ . ~ us care ~ ~ ' - 2 2 If in Acquisition, Where? Human Effects a ~ Y j ~ ~ w a JFC. Antimateriel. X X X COTS. JFC. NSWC-D. I. X Hazard depends on intensity. May not be eye-safe. COTS. Can be eye hazard. X X X Hazard depends on intensity. Probably safe for use with humans. Committee meeting, June Eye-safe if low-level laser 13, 2001 (see Preface). used. X X X X X X X X X X X X ? 6