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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Grant No. T0236CC10348 between the National Academies and the Smithsonian Institution. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

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COVER: Clockwise from top left corner. Photos reprinted with permission from the Smithsonian Institution.

Mei Xiang, the female giant panda at the National Zoological Park. Mei Xiang, along with the male Panda Tian Tian, are on a 10-year loan, under an agreement with the China Wildlife Conservation Association. Photo by Jessie Cohen.

X-ray image of the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion in 1054 A.D., taken by the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory’s Chandra X-ray Center. Photo credit: NASA/CXC/SAO.

Spacesuit preservation by staff at the Smithsonian Center for Materials Research and Education. Photo by Doc Dougherty.

View of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Photo by Marcos Guerra.

Feather identification expert Roxie Laybourne, amidst a portion of bird collection at the National Museum of Natural History. Photo by Chip Clark.

View of the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, Maryland. Photo by Mark Haddon.

Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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