The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement

Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 51
An Assessment of Precision Time and Time Interval Science and Technology Appendixes

OCR for page 51
An Assessment of Precision Time and Time Interval Science and Technology This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page 51
An Assessment of Precision Time and Time Interval Science and Technology A Committee Biographies David H. Auston, a member of both the NAS and the NAE, is president of the Kavli Foundation and Institute and a former president of Case Western Reserve University. Prior to his service at CWRU he held faculty positions in the departments of physics, electrical engineering, and computer science at Columbia University and Rice University, serving as provost at Rice. Before his academic career he established his reputation as a researcher at Bell Laboratories. His research expertise is in the areas of lasers, nonlinear optics, and solid-state materials. He is a recipient of the R.W. Wood prize of the Optical Society of America and the Quantum Electronics and Morris E. Leeds Awards of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Dr. Auston’s previous NRC service includes membership on the Committee on Criteria for Federal Support of Research and Development, the Board on Physics and Astronomy, and the Board on Assessment of NIST Programs and its panel for the Physics Laboratory, which he chaired for 2 years. Leonard S. Cutler is a Distinguished Contributor of the Technical Staff, Agilent Technologies. He is a member of the NAE. Dr. Cutler is well recognized for his contributions to atomic frequency standards and atomic timekeeping and is a leader in the commercial development of atomic clocks. He has worked on diverse timekeeping systems, including cesium beam, rubidium, and mercury ion standards and precision quartz oscillators, and is sometimes referred to (by others) as “the father of the atomic clock” and “the time lord.” He also works on remote synchronization techniques. He is a fellow of the IEEE and the American Physical Society (APS) and has received the IEEE’s Morris E. Leeds, Centennial, and Rabi awards and shared the American Institute of Physics Prize for Industrial Application of Physics. Robert E. Drullinger is a staff scientist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in its Time and Frequency Division in Boulder, Colorado. He held various positions at NIST starting in 1972. His research has focused on advanced atomic clock concepts. He led the development of NIST-7, the world’s most accurate atomic beam clock, and participated in the first-ever photon-pressure cooling of atoms and the first direct frequency measurement of visible light. He is part of a group of researchers who have demonstrated the world’s first all-optical clock and is currently working to establish new

OCR for page 51
An Assessment of Precision Time and Time Interval Science and Technology performance standards for the short-term stability and accuracy of that frequency standard. Dr. Drullinger wass the 1996 recipient of the IEEE Rabi Award. Robert P. Frueholz is currently principal director, Communication Systems Subdivision, The Aerospace Corporation. He has held various positions at Aerospace, but since 1984 has maintained almost continually some responsibility in the areas of precision timekeeping and atomic frequency standards and their application to operational satellite systems such as GPS and MILSTAR. He has also worked in laser design and fabrication, the application of lasers to remote sensing, and microelectronics. In his current position, he is responsible for communications systems, from hardware—radio frequency and optical—through architectural studies. Gerald Gabrielse is a professor of physics at Harvard University and is chair of the Physics Department. He leads the ATRAP Collaboration, an international research collaboration with the goal of accurate laser spectroscopy with trapped antihydrogen atoms. His research group is involved in a variety of atomic, optical, elementary particle, plasma, and low-temperature physics experiments. He is a fellow of the APS and is the winner of the Davisson-Germer Award for 2002. He participated on the NRC’s Committee on High-Energy-Density Plasma Physics Assessment. William P. Kelleher is group leader of the Electro-Optic Sensors Group at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory. His responsibilities focus on research in optical sensors for inertial navigation, chemical sensing, and communications applications such as dense WDM and switching. He oversees R&D efforts in high-Q optical resonators, photonic bandgap sensors, and precision wavelength references for broadband light sources. Glen Kowach received his Ph.D. in chemistry in 1995 from Cornell University under the guidance of Francis J. DiSalvo. After leaving Cornell, he joined the staff of Bell Laboratories/Lucent Technologies, where he was named a Distinguished Member of the technical staff after only 4 years. He was part of the team that discovered the first materials with negative thermal expansion. He has great breadth of knowledge about materials, with crystals and crystallinity being a particular interest. He was with Agere Systems during the course of this study but has since returned to Bell Labs. Lute Maleki is a senior research scientist and technical group supervisor of the Quantum Sciences and Technology Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. He has been involved in directing and conducting research in a number of areas related to the generation, distribution, and measurement of ultrastable reference frequencies. His current research focuses on the development of atomic clocks based on ion traps and laser-cooled trapped atoms; development of sensors based on atom wave interferometers; study and development of ultrastable photonic oscillators and signal distribution systems; study and development of whispering-gallery-mode microresonators; and tests of fundamental physics with clocks. Dr. Maleki is a fellow of IEEE and a winner of its Rabi Award. Thomas E. Parker is a staff member in the Time and Frequency Division of NIST in Boulder, Colorado. He is the leader of that division’s Atomic Frequency Standards Group. His interests include primary frequency standards, time scales, and time transfer technology. He played a large role in incorporating hydrogen masers into the NIST time scale, in improving the Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer system, and in making frequency comparisons between primary frequency standards. Before joining NIST in 1994, Dr. Parker worked at Raytheon, where he contributed to the development of high-performance surface acoustic wave technology. He is a fellow of the IEEE. Bradford W. Parkinson is Edward C. Wells Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics at Stanford University. He is a member of the NAE. He is currently coprincipal investigator of the Gravity Probe B experiment and also maintains a research laboratory active in the research and development of applications of differential GPS. During his Air Force service he was the first program director for NAVSTAR/ GPS. He has held positions at Rockwell International and Colorado State University and served as chair

OCR for page 51
An Assessment of Precision Time and Time Interval Science and Technology of the NASA Advisory Committee and commissioner of the Presidential Commission on Air Safety and Security. He is a fellow of the Royal Institute of Navigation and the American Institute of Astronautics and Aeronautics. Richard A. Riddell is a retired rear admiral, U.S. Navy, and is currently affiliated with General Dynamics. He held numerous positions of responsibility during his Navy career, culminating in directorships of the Special Programs Division and the Test and Evaluation and Technology Requirements Office of the CNO. He also served as director of the Strategic Submarine Division. As such, Admiral Riddell knows about naval needs in communications technology and applications of PTTI to communications and navigation. Admiral Riddell’s awards include the Legion of Merit with four Gold Stars, the Meritorious Service Medal with two Gold Stars, and the Navy Commendation Medal with three Gold Stars. He is a graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy. Samuel R. Stein is a founder and president of Timing Solutions Corporation, a company that specializes in real-time applications and provides timing systems to the national laboratories, DOD systems such as GPS, and government prime contractors. He has developed ultra-high-precision time measurement, generation, and distribution systems and is an internationally recognized leader in time and frequency measurement methods and the ensembling of clocks. He previously held management positions at Ball Corporation (Efratom Division) and the National Bureau of Standards (now NIST). Robert F.C. Vessot recently retired from his position as senior physicist at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, where he served as principal investigator of the Hydrogen Maser Laboratory from 1969 and now serves as a research associate. His research group built all the hydrogen masers used in NASA’s Deep Space Network and has supported radio astronomical Very Long Baseline Interferometry activities worldwide. He has worked on hydrogen masers since 1961 and did much to make the hydrogen maser the most stable oscillator available. Before joining Harvard-Smithsonian, he was manager of hydrogen maser research and development at Varian Associates/Hewlett-Packard (1960-1969). He was principal investigator for NASA’s Gravity Probe-A experiment, which confirmed Einstein’s predictions of the effects of relativistic gravitation on the rate of clocks at a precision of 70 parts per million. He currently works as a consultant for Kernco, a commercial provider of atomic frequency standards. In 1978, Dr. Vessot was awarded the NASA Medal for Exceptional Scientific Achievement. He received the IEEE Rabi Award in 1978 and the PTTI Distinguished Service Award in 2001. John R. Vig is a research scientist and program manager at the U.S. Army’s Fort Monmouth. His work has focused primarily on frequency control devices, with a specialty in quartz crystal oscillators. He is a fellow of IEEE and has received that organization’s Cady Award. He is active in the IEEE Frequency Control Symposium, frequently serving in leadership roles, including chair of the Technical Program Committee for the 2002 international symposium. He has served as president of the IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society and is currently president of the IEEE Sensors Council.