The short-term stability of an oscillator is measured by its Allan deviation, denoted by σy(τ), which is the square root of one half the average of the squares of the differences between successive average normalized frequency departure, averaged over the sampling time τ, under the assumption that there is no dead time between the averaged normalized frequency departure samples.
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Appendix D: Glossary ."
An Assessment of Precision Time and Time Interval Science and Technology . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press,
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