PREPARING FOR THE REVOLUTION

Information Technology and the Future of the Research University

Panel on the Impact of Information Technology on the Future of the Research University

Policy and Global Affairs

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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Preparing for the Revolution: Information Technology and the Future of the Research University PREPARING FOR THE REVOLUTION Information Technology and the Future of the Research University Panel on the Impact of Information Technology on the Future of the Research University Policy and Global Affairs NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Preparing for the Revolution: Information Technology and the Future of the Research University THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This material is based upon work supported by the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation, the National Science Foundation (Grant No. EIA-0102264), the W.K. Kellogg Foundation (Grant No. P0085457), and the National Research Council. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08640-X Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Preparing for the Revolution: Information Technology and the Future of the Research University THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Preparing for the Revolution: Information Technology and the Future of the Research University PANEL ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON THE FUTURE OF THE RESEARCH UNIVERSITY JAMES J. DUDERSTADT (Chair), President Emeritus and Millennium Project Director, The University of Michigan DANIEL E. ATKINS, Professor of Information and Computer Science, and Executive Director of the Alliance for Community Technology, The University of Michigan JOHN SEELY BROWN, Chief Scientist, Xerox Corporation MARYE ANNE FOX, Chancellor, North Carolina State University RALPH E. GOMORY, President, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation NILS HASSELMO, President, Association of American Universities PAUL M. HORN, Senior Vice President for Research, IBM SHIRLEY ANN JACKSON, President, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute FRANK H. T. RHODES, President Emeritus and Professor, Cornell University MARSHALL S. SMITH, Professor, School of Education, Stanford University and Program Officer for Education, Hewlett Foundation LEE SPROULL, Professor, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, New York University DOUG VAN HOUWELING, President and CEO, University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development/ Internet2 ROBERT WEISBUCH, President, Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation WM. A. WULF, President, National Academy of Engineering JOE B. WYATT, Chancellor Emeritus, Vanderbilt University Principal Study Staff: RAYMOND E. FORNES, Visiting Senior Scientist/Study Director, and Professor of Physics, North Carolina State University (on sabbatical during 2000-2001) THOMAS ARRISON, Director, Forum on Information Technology and Research Universities

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Preparing for the Revolution: Information Technology and the Future of the Research University DAVID BRUGGEMAN, Research Associate, Forum on Information Technology and Research Universities EDVIN HERNANDEZ, Senior Program Associate, Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable STEVEN J. MARCUS, Science Editor/Writer

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Preparing for the Revolution: Information Technology and the Future of the Research University Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Ruth Dickstein, University of Arizona James L. Flanagan, Rutgers University Robert Gallagher, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Gary Miller, Pennsylvania State University Gregory Moses, University of Wisconsin Judy Ozbolt, Vanderbilt University Matthew Pittinsky, Blackboard, Inc. Douglas Seefeldt, University of Virginia Melanie Sturgeon, State of Arizona Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by William G. Howard, Jr., Independent Consultant, and John D. Wiley, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for

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Preparing for the Revolution: Information Technology and the Future of the Research University making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Preparing for the Revolution: Information Technology and the Future of the Research University Contents     Executive Summary   1 1   Introduction   5     Context for the Study,   8 2   Technology Futures   13     An Extraordinary Evolution,   15     An Internet-Drive Economy,   17 3   Implications for the Research University   21     Education in Tune with the Times,   24     Research Unbounded,   30     Preserving and Communicating Knowledge,   33     Impact on the Form, Function, and Financing of the University,   35     Impact on the Higher-Education Enterprise,   38 4   Choosing the Future: Findings and Options   45     Significant Findings,   47     Discovering Options: The Need for Continued Dialogue,   49     Breathtaking Implications,   53     Endnotes   55     References   59     Appendixes         A Project Chronology   67     B January 22-23, 2001 Workshop Agenda   69     C Panel Member Bio Sketches   73

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Preparing for the Revolution: Information Technology and the Future of the Research University Preparing for the Revolution

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