APPENDIXES



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The Future of the Public’s Health in the 21st Century APPENDIXES

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The Future of the Public’s Health in the 21st Century This page in the original is blank.

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The Future of the Public’s Health in the 21st Century A Models of Health Determinants As noted in Chapter 2, several models have been developed to describe the social or ecological determinants of health—the ways in which elements of the social, economic, and physical environments interact with individual biological factors and behaviors and shape health status. Some representative examples are provided below. An additional model, not pictured below, was developed by Keating and Hertzman (1999). FIGURE A–1 A comprehensive model of the determinants of health. SOURCE: Evans and Stoddart (1990). Used with permission from Elsevier Science.

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The Future of the Public’s Health in the 21st Century FIGURE A–2 Multilevel approach to epidemiology. SOURCE: Institute of Medicine (2000). FIGURE A–3 The Dahlgren-Whitehead model. SOURCE: Dahlgren and Whitehead (1991). Used with permission of the Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm, Sweden.

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The Future of the Public’s Health in the 21st Century REFERENCES Dahlgren G, Whitehead M. 1991. Policies and Strategies to Promote Social Equity in Health. Stockholm, Sweden: Institute for Futures Studies. Evans RG, Stoddart GL. 1990. Producing health, consuming healthcare. Social Science and Medicine 31:1347–1363. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2000. Promoting Health: Intervention Strategies from Social and Behavioral Research, p. 43. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Keating DP, Hertzman C. 1999. Developmental Health and the Wealth of Nations: Social, Biological, and Educational Dynamics, p. 30. New York: Guilford Press.