BOX 3–1 The 10 Essential Public Health Services


  1. Monitor health status to identify community health problems

  2. Diagnose and investigate health problems and health hazards in the community

Policy Development

  1. Inform, educate, and empower people about health issues

  2. Mobilize community partnerships to identify and solve health problems

  3. Develop policies and plans that support individual and community health efforts


  1. Enforce laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safety

  2. Link people to needed personal health services and assure the provision of health care when otherwise unavailable

  3. Assure a competent public health and personal health care workforce

  4. Evaluate effectiveness, accessibility, and quality of personal and population-based health services

Serving All Functions

  1. Research for new insights and innovative solutions to health problems

SOURCE: Public Health Functions Steering Committee (1994).

ing for this infrastructure at the state and local levels to ensure the availability of the essential health services to all people, and this is a critical concern. The federal government has, however, developed and funded various new programs and organizational units, which, if effectively coordinated, could serve as important components of a more systematic program. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established (in 1989) the Public Health Practice Program Office and strengthened university-based Centers for Prevention Research (initiated in 1983). CDC also developed Public Health Leadership Institutes (initiated in 1992) at the national and regional levels and the National Public Health Training Network (initiated in 1993). Both programs respond to recommendations to improve the overall leadership competencies of public health practitioners. In 1993, CDC began discussions of a modern and uniform approach to public health surveillance, and it has moved forward with the development of a National Electronic Disease Surveillance Network. More recently, CDC has worked with states to establish the Health Alert Network (initiated in 1999) to improve infor-

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