IOS

International Organization for Standardization

LFA

Low-Frequency Active (sonar)

MMPA

Marine Mammal Protection Act

NAS

National Academy of Sciences

NAVOCEANO

Naval Oceanographic Office

NMFS

National Marine Fisheries Service

NOAA

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOPP

National Ocean Partnership Program

NRC

National Research Council

NRDC

Natural Resources Defense Council

NSF

National Science Foundation

OAML Navy’s

Oceanographic and Atmospheric Master Library

ONR

Office of Naval Research

OSB

Ocean Studies Board

PE

parabolic equation

PTS

permanent threshold shift

RMS

root mean squared

RRF

range reduction factor

SOFAR

sound fixing and ranging

SOLMAR

Sound, Oceanography, and Living Marine Resources Database

SOSUS

Sound Surveillance System SPAWAR Space and Naval Warfare

TTS

temporary threshold shift

USFWS

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

USGS

U.S. Geological Survey



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