References

SOURCES CITED

Blewett, W.K., D.W. Reeves, V.J. Arca, D.P. Fatkin, and B.D. Cannon. 1996. Expedient Sheltering in Place: An Evaluation for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program, Chemical Research, Development, and Engineering Center, ERDEC-TR-336. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: U.S. Army Armament Munitions Chemical Command.


CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2000. Technical Investigation Report: Release of GB at the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (TOCDF) on May 8-9, 2000, June. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Environmental Health.

CSEPP (Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program). 2000. Department of the Army, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program, CESPP Policy Paper Number 18, CSEPP National Benchmarks, August. Washington, DC: Federal Emergency Management Agency.


DoD (Department of Defense). 1980. Methodology for Chemical Hazard Protection, Technical Paper No. 10, Change 3. Alexandria, VA: Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board.


EG&G (Edgerton, Germerhausen and Grier). 2000. Confirmed GB Agent Readings in the Common Stack, Occurrence Report 00-05-08-A1, June 22. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization.

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2001. RCRA Investigation, Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS), May 9. San Francisco, CA: Environmental Protection Agency Region 9 Office.


FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency). 1993. National CSEPP Benchmarks. Washington, DC: Federal Emergency Management Agency.

FEMA. 1996. Planning Guidance for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program, May 17. Washington, DC: Federal Emergency Management Agency.

FEMA. 1997. Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department of the Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency: Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), October 8. Washington, DC: Federal Emergency Management Agency.


GAO (General Accounting Office). 2001. Chemical Weapons: FEMA and Army Must Be Proactive in Preparing States for Emergencies, August. Washington, DC: General Accounting Office.

Gertman, D.I., and H.S. Blackman. 1994. Human Reliability and Safety Analysis Data Handbook. New York, NY: Wiley.


Hollnagel, E. 1998. Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method: CREAM. New York, NY: Elsevier.


IEM (Innovative Emergency Management). 2001a. D2-Puff Version 4.0 Reference Manual. Baton Rouge, LA: Innovative Emergency Management, Inc.

IEM. 2001b. D2-Puff Version 4.0 Technical Manual. Baton Rouge, LA: Innovative Emergency Management, Inc.

IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1999. Chemical and Biological Terrorism: Research and Development to Improve Civilian Medical Response. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

IOM. 2000. To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.


Kasperson, R. 1992. The social amplification of risk: Progress in developing an integrated framework. Pp. 153–178 in Social Theories of Risk. S. Krimsky and D. Golding, eds. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Kasperson, R.E., O. Renn, P. Slovic, H.S. Brown, J. Emel, R. Gobel, J.X. Kasperson, and S. Ratnick. 1988. The social amplification of risk: A conceptual framework. Risk Analysis 8(2): 177–187.


NRC (National Research Council). 1994. Review of Monitoring Activities Within the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1996. Review of Systemization of the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1997. Risk Assessment and Management at Deseret Chemical Depot and the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1999a. Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility: Update on National Research Council Recommendations. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1999b. Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 2000a. Integrated Design of Alternative Technologies for Bulk-Only Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 2000b. Letter Report. A Review of the Army’s Public Affairs Efforts in Support of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 2000c. Waste Incineration and Public Health. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 2001a. Occupational Health and Workplace Monitoring at Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 2001b. Standing Operating Procedures for Developing Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Chemicals. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 2002. Closure and Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.


Reason, J. 1997. Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate.


Scholz, J.T., and F.H. Wei. 1986. Regulatory enforcement in a federalist system. American Political Science Review 80: 1249–1270.



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References SOURCES CITED IEM. 2001b. D2-Puff Version 4.0 Technical Manual. Baton Rouge, LA: Innovative Emergency Management, Inc. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1999. Chemical and Biological Terrorism: Blewett, W.K., D.W. Reeves, V.J. Arca, D.P. Fatkin, and B.D. Cannon. Research and Development to Improve Civilian Medical Response. 1996. Expedient Sheltering in Place: An Evaluation for the Chemical Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program, Chemical Research, De- IOM. 2000. To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System. Washing- velopment, and Engineering Center, ERDEC-TR-336. Aberdeen Prov- ton, DC: National Academy Press. ing Ground, MD: U.S. Army Armament Munitions Chemical Com- Kasperson, R. 1992. The social amplification of risk: Progress in develop- mand. ing an integrated framework. Pp. 153–178 in Social Theories of Risk. S. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2000. Technical Inves- Krimsky and D. Golding, eds. Westport, CT: Praeger. tigation Report: Release of GB at the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Kasperson, R.E., O. Renn, P. Slovic, H.S. Brown, J. Emel, R. Gobel, J.X. Facility (TOCDF) on May 8-9, 2000, June. Atlanta, GA: National Cen- Kasperson, and S. Ratnick. 1988. The social amplification of risk: A ter for Environmental Health. conceptual framework. Risk Analysis 8(2): 177–187. CSEPP (Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program). 2000. NRC (National Research Council). 1994. Review of Monitoring Activities Department of the Army, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Within the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Washington, Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program, CESPP Policy DC: National Academy Press. Paper Number 18, CSEPP National Benchmarks, August. Washington, NRC. 1996. Review of Systemization of the Tooele Chemical Agent Dis- DC: Federal Emergency Management Agency. posal Facility. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. DoD (Department of Defense). 1980. Methodology for Chemical Hazard NRC. 1997. Risk Assessment and Management at Deseret Chemical Depot Protection, Technical Paper No. 10, Change 3. Alexandria, VA: Depart- and the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility. Washington, DC: ment of Defense Explosives Safety Board. National Academy Press. EG&G (Edgerton, Germerhausen and Grier). 2000. Confirmed GB Agent NRC. 1999a. Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility: Update on Na- Readings in the Common Stack, Occurrence Report 00-05-08-A1, June tional Research Council Recommendations. Washington, DC: National 22. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: Program Manager for Chemical Academy Press. Demilitarization. NRC. 1999b. Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for De- EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2001. RCRA Investigation, militarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons. Washington, DC: Na- Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS), May 9. tional Academy Press. San Francisco, CA: Environmental Protection Agency Region 9 Office. NRC. 2000a. Integrated Design of Alternative Technologies for Bulk-Only FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency). 1993. National CSEPP Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities. Washington, DC: National Acad- Benchmarks. Washington, DC: Federal Emergency Management emy Press. Agency. NRC. 2000b. Letter Report. A Review of the Army’s Public Affairs Efforts FEMA. 1996. Planning Guidance for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency in Support of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Washington, Preparedness Program, May 17. Washington, DC: Federal Emergency DC: National Academy Press. Management Agency. NRC. 2000c. Waste Incineration and Public Health. Washington, DC: Na- FEMA. 1997. Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department of tional Academy Press. the Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency: Chemical NRC. 2001a. Occupational Health and Workplace Monitoring at Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), October 8. Agent Disposal Facilities. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Washington, DC: Federal Emergency Management Agency. NRC. 2001b. Standing Operating Procedures for Developing Acute Expo- GAO (General Accounting Office). 2001. Chemical Weapons: FEMA and sure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Chemicals. Washington, DC: Na- Army Must Be Proactive in Preparing States for Emergencies, August. tional Academy Press. Washington, DC: General Accounting Office. NRC. 2002. Closure and Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System Gertman, D.I., and H.S. Blackman. 1994. Human Reliability and Safety (JACADS). Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Analysis Data Handbook. New York, NY: Wiley. Reason, J. 1997. Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents. Hollnagel, E. 1998. Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method: Brookfield, VT: Ashgate. CREAM. New York, NY: Elsevier. Scholz, J.T., and F.H. Wei. 1986. Regulatory enforcement in a federalist IEM (Innovative Emergency Management). 2001a. D2-Puff Version 4.0 system. American Political Science Review 80: 1249–1270. Reference Manual. Baton Rouge, LA: Innovative Emergency Manage- ment, Inc. 57

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58 EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL EVENTS AT ARMY CHEMICAL AGENT DISPOSAL FACILITIES Seinfeld, J.H., and S.N. Pandis. 1998. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: Committee on the Evaluation of Chemical Events at Army Chemical From Air Pollution to Climate Change. New York, NY: Wiley. Agent Disposal Facilities, August. U.S. Army. 1990. Occupational Health Guidelines for the Evaluation and U.S. Army. 2001f. Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System: Re- Control of Occupational Exposure to Nerve Agents GA, GB, GD and port of the 3 December 2000 Chemical Agent Reading in the Heated VX, Pamphlet 40-8, December. Washington, DC: U.S. Army Medical Discharge Conveyor (HDC) Bin, March 30. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Services. MD: Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 1991. Occupational Health Guidelines for the Evaluation and U.S. Army. 2001g. Information provided to the Committee on the Evalua- Control of Occupational Exposure to Mustard Agents H, HD and HT, tion of Chemical Events at Army Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities Pamphlet 40-173, August. Washington, DC: U.S. Army Medical Ser- during a fact-finding trip, Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility, vices. Tooele, UT, July 26. U.S. Army. 1993-1995. TOCDF Functional Analysis Workbook. Aberdeen U.S. Army. 2002a. Information provided to the Committee on the Evalua- Proving Ground, MD: Program Manager for Chemical Demilitariza- tion of Chemical Events at Army Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities by tion. Conrad Whyne, Deputy Project Manager for Chemical Stockpile Dis- U.S. Army. 1995. Army Regulation 50-6—Chemical Surety. Washington, posal, September 12. DC: Headquarters, Department of the Army. U.S. Army. 2002b. Information provided to the Committee on the Evalua- U.S. Army. 1996a. Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Quantitative tion of Chemical Events at Army Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities by Risk Assessment, SAIC-96/2600. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: Pro- the Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization, March 5. gram Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. USCNS (United States Commission on National Security). 2001. Roadmap U.S. Army. 1996b. PMCD Regulation 385-3, Accident and Chemical Event for National Security: Imperative for Change, January 31. Available Notification, Investigation, Reporting, and Records, August. Aberdeen online at [July 11, 2002]. U.S. Army. 1996c. Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Risk Management USNRC (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission). 2000. Technical Basis Program Requirements. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: Program Man- and Implementation Guidelines for a Technique for Human Event ager for Chemical Demilitarization. Analysis (ATHEANA), NUREG-1624, REV. 1. Rockville, MD: U.S. U.S. Army. 1997a. Monitoring Concept Plan. Revision 3, May 1997. Aber- Nuclear Regulatory Commission. deen Proving Ground, MD: U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Utah DEQ (Department of Environmental Quality). 1996. Tooele Chemical Demilitarization. Agent Disposal Facility Screening Risk Assessment, EPA I.D. No. U.S. Army. 1997b. A Guide to Risk Management Policy and Activities, UT5210090002. Salt Lake City, UT: Utah DEQ. 176-009, January. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: Program Manager Utah DEQ. 2000a. Investigation Report on the Agent Release from the for Chemical Demilitarization. Common Incinerator Stack on May 8 and 9, 2000 at the Tooele Chemi- U.S. Army. 1999a. Regulation 385-3—Accident and Chemical Event Noti- cal Agent Demilitarization Facility, June 16. Salt Lake City, UT: Utah fication, Investigation, Reporting and Record Keeping, April. Aberdeen DEQ Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste. Proving Ground, MD: Program Manager for Chemical Demilitariza- Utah DEQ. 2000b. Memorandum of Understanding Between Deseret tion. Chemical Depot and Tooele County for Information Exchange, Sep- U.S. Army. 1999b. Results of the Independent Verification and Validation tember 12; updated November 7, 2001. Salt Lake City, UT: Utah DEQ Study for the D2-Puff Model, TECOM Project No. 8-CO-480-CSE- Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste. 001, DPG Document No. WDTC-DR-99-050. Dugway Proving Ground, Weick, K.E., and K.M. Sutcliffe. 2001. Managing the Unexpected: Assur- UT: Metrology and Obscurants Division, West Deseret Test Center. ing High Performance in an Age of Complexity. San Francisco, CA: U.S. Army. 2000a. Annual Status Report on the Disposal of Chemical Jossey-Bass. Weapons and Materiel for Fiscal Year 2000, September 30. Aberdeen Wood, B.D. 1992. Modeling federal implementation as a system: The clean Proving Ground, MD: Program Manager for Chemical Demilitariza- air case. American Journal of Political Science 36: 40–67. tion. U.S. Army. 2000b. Informal 15-6 Investigation of the Tooele Chemical LAWS GOVERNING CHEMICAL DEMILITARIZATION Agent Disposal Facility (TOCDF) Common Stack Release 8-9 May 2000, June. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. Treaty U.S. Army. 2000c. Operations Schedule Task Force 2000 Final Report. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: Program Manager for Chemical De- Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpil- militarization. ing and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction (P.L. 105- U.S. Army. 2001a. Status of Agent Destruction at JACADS and TOCDF, 5 277) September. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. Statutes U.S. Army. 2001b. U.S. Army Chemical Demilitarization Program Releases Updated Official Schedule and Cost Estimates, Press Release, October Chemical Safety Information, Site Security and Fuels Regulatory Relief 4. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: Program Manager for Chemical Act (P.L. 106-40) Demilitarization. Clean Air Act (CAA; 42 U.S.C. §7401 et seq.) U.S. Army. 2001c. Information provided to the Committee on the Evalua- Clean Water Act (CWA; 33 U.S.C. §1251 et seq.) tion of Chemical Events at Army Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities by Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (EPCRTKA; 42 Andrew P. Roach, Office of the Program Manager for Chemical De- U.S.C. §11001 et seq.) militarization, May 22. Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA; 29 U.S.C. 1920.120 et seq.) U.S. Army. 2001d. Information provided to the Committee on the Evalua- Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA; 42 U.S.C. §6901 et seq.) tion of Chemical Events at Army Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities by Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA; 15 U.S.C. §2601 et seq.) Gregory St. Pierre, Office of the Program Manager for Chemical De- militarization, May 30. U.S. Army. 2001e. Stockpile leak data, provided by M.J. Civis and W.T. Studdert, U.S. Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command, to the

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APPENDIXES

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