person exposed to jet fuel (type and dose not specified) while fueling aircraft in the U.S. Air Force had mild, reversible focal glomerulonephritis.

One animal study that examined potential adverse effects of JP-8 exposure on the kidney was identified. Mattie et al. (1991) showed that exposure to JP-8 causes kidney lesions in male rats. Male and female F344 rats and C57BL/6 mice were exposed to JP-8 vapor at 500 or 1,000 mg/m3 for 90 days. After the 90-day exposure, a triad of lesions were found in the kidneys of male rats: dramatically exacerbated hyalin droplet formation, granular casts in the outer medulla, and increased incidence and severity of lesions undifferentiable from those of chronic progressive nephrosis. No such lesions were observed in female rats. In the male and female mice, no histopathologic lesions related directly to JP-8 were found. The increased incidence and severity of chronic progressive nephrosis persisted throughout the remainder of the lifetimes of the male rats. The kidney changes observed after 90 days were not reversible and were progressive. The severity of lesions was greater after the higher exposure. No kidney tumors were found in the study. No other animal studies of the effects of JP-8 on kidneys were identified in the 1996 report.

Several studies that examined kidney toxicity of jet fuels other than JP-8 were described in the 1996 report (Parker et al. 1981; Bogo et al. 1983; MacEwen and Vernot 1985; Bruner et al. 1993). The results of those studies were consistent with the results of the Mattie et al. (1991) study. Male rats exposed to JP-4, JP-5, or DFM vapors developed kidney lesions consistent with hyaline droplet degeneration and resembling what is known as alpha 2u-globulin nephropathy. The mechanisms that underlie the development of that lesion are believed to occur only to male rats. The 1996 subcommittee concluded that the lesion is not expected to occur in humans.

EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO JP-8 IN HUMANS

The effects of exposure to JP-8 on the human kidney were examined in a study recently completed by the U.S. Air Force. The preliminary results of that study are described below and summarized in Table 8-1.

Snawder and Butler (2001) collected venous blood and urine from 107 people who worked at six U.S. Air Force bases (AFBs): Davis Monthan AFB, Arizona; Seymour Johnson AFB, North Carolina; Langley AFB, Virginia; Pope, AFB, North Carolina; Little Rock AFB, Arkansas; and Hurlbert Field, Florida. The exposed workers were fuel tank-entry personnel with persistent exposure to jet fuel (defined as a 1-hr entry twice a week for at least 9 months). The unexposed group consisted of Air Force personnel who had no important occupational exposure to hydrocarbon solvents or fuels. The participants



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