(type not specified): six sheet metal workers, six painters, 15 men who fuel jets, and 23 flight-line workers (LeMasters et al. 1999); eight unexposed men served as the control group. The men were exposed to a mixture of solvents and fuels. Breath samples from the men were collected and measured for total naphthas, benzene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, methyl ethyl ketone, xylenes, toluene, and methylene chloride. All mean measures were less than 6 ppm. The following characteristics were analyzed: sperm production, structure, and function (sperm concentration, motility, viability, morphology, and morphometrics and stability of sperm chromatin). Measurements were made before exposure and after 15 and 30 wk of exposure. There was an increase in sperm concentration in the jet-fueler and flight-line groups and a decrease in sperm linearity in the jet-fueler group. The authors concluded that exposure to jet fuel did not have an apparent effect on semen quality for aircraft-maintenance personnel.

EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO JP-8 IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

Several studies have been conducted to assess the effects of JP-8 on the reproductive and developmental systems of experimental animals. They are described below and summarized in Table 9-1.

Reproductive Toxicity

Mattie et al. (2000) examined fertility in male and female rats exposed to JP-8. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given JP-8 at 0, 750, 1,500, or 3,000 mg/kg daily by gavage for 70 days before mating and during mating with unexposed females (up to 90 days). After 90 days, the male rats were sacrificed, and sperm concentration, motile sperm concentration, percentage motility, velocity, linearity, maximal amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH), mean ALH, and beat/cross frequency were measured. Other dimensions measured were mean radius, number of circular cells, percentage circular cells/ motile cells, and percentage circular cells/all cells. Pregnancy rate and gestation duration were recorded for all mated females. There were no adverse clinical signs, except changes in body weight. Rats exposed at 750 mg/kg showed a significant decrease in body weights (p < 0.05). There were no differences between exposed groups and the control group in any of the sperm measures. Exposure to JP-8 at the concentrations administered to the male mating partners did not have an effect on fertility of unexposed females.

Female Sprague-Dawley rats were given JP-8 at 0, 325, 750, or 1,500 mg/kg daily by gavage for 21 wk (90 days before cohabitation and during



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