of past, current, and potential contributions of partnerships to the welfare, competitiveness, and security of the United States.


On behalf of the National Academies, we express our appreciation and recognition for the insights, experiences, and perspectives made available by the participants of various conferences.

A number of individuals deserve recognition for their contributions to the preparation of this summary report, the eleventh produced by the project. Among the STEP staff, Dr. Sujai Shivakumar played a major role in the preparation of this report, showing great skill in drawing together the disparate elements of this multifaceted assessment of public-private partnerships. He also frequently contributed original research and his own valuable insights. His colleague, Christopher Hayter, brought his enthusiasm, commitment, and considerable skill to the project to ensure the accuracy and quality of the report as well as its timely production. The study as a whole owes a great debt to McAlister Clabaugh and David Dierksheide, both of whom worked long, hard, and well over several years to hold the meetings and produce the reports required by this broad-based review. Their ability to master multiple priorities and provide uncompromising quality made the project possible. Without their collective efforts, among many other competing priorities, it would not have been possible to prepare this report in the required time frame.


This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Philip Auerswald, Harvard University; Robert Carpenter, University of Maryland; Merton Flemings, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Christina Gabriel, Carnegie Mellon University; Paul Horn, International Business Machines Corporation; Henry Kelly, Federation of American Scientists; Charles Kolb, Aerodyne Research, Inc.; Vernon Ruttan, University of Minnesota; Jeffrey Sohl, University of New Hampshire; and Nicholas Vonortas, George Washington University. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommenda-

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