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APPEND TX F Agricultural-Research Funding TABLE F-1 Research, Education, and Economics by Agency for FY 1985-2001 Actual and FY 2002 Estimate Budget Authority, millions of nominal dollars Year ARS CSREES ERS NASS Total Year Budget Al; 1985 528 648 47 58 1,281 1985 1986 500 614 44 56 1,214 1986 1987 533 718 45 58 1,354 1987 1988 572 708 48 61 1,389 1988 1989 601 703 50 64 1,418 1989 1990 621 755 51 67 1,494 1990 1991 689 852 54 76 1,671 1991 1992 754 927 59 83 1,823 1992 1993 724 910 59 81 1,774 1993 1994 757 933 55 82 1,827 1994 1995 772 931 54 81 1,838 1995 1996 751 911 53 81 1,796 1996 1997 800 949 54 100 1,903 1997 1998 845 859 72 118 1,894 1998 1999 871 924 63 104 1,962 1999 2000 903 1,091 64 100 2,158 2000 2001 1,019 1,150 68 101 2,338 2001 2002 1,247 1,033 70 114 2,464 2002 Note: ARS estimates include $17 million made available under the Agricultural Risk Protection Act in 2001 and $113 million under Emergency Supplemental to Respond to Terrorism in 2002, consist- ing of $40 million for research and $73 million for facilities. Constant dollar estimates based on deflators for research expenditures (see Table F-l l). 186

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APPENDIX F 187 Budget Authority, millions of constant dollars 2000 = 1.00 Year ARS CSREES ERS NASS Total 1985 915 1,123 81 101 2,220 1986 833 1,023 73 93 2,022 1987 854 1,151 72 93 2,170 1988 868 1,074 73 93 2,108 1989 861 1,007 72 92 2,032 1990 846 1,029 69 91 2,035 1991 913 1,128 72 101 2,214 1992 974 1,198 76 107 2,355 1993 914 1,149 74 102 2,239 1994 922 1,136 67 100 2,225 1995 914 1,102 64 96 2,176 1996 865 1,050 61 93 2,069 1997 892 1,058 60 111 2,121 1998 906 921 77 126 2,030 1999 899 954 65 107 2,025 2000 903 1,091 64 100 2,158 2001 970 1,095 65 96 2,226 2002 1,157 958 65 106 2,286

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188 TABLE F-2 Total R&D by Agency, FY 1976-2003 APPENDIX F Budget Authority, millions of 2000 dollars, FY 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 DOD 32,685 35,317 34,223 34,100 32,991 37,180 41,948 45,967 50,976 55,421 58,334 59,512 57,854 55,270 51,59 NASA 11,458 11,677 11,570 11,997 12,336 11,827 9,233 5,311 5,464 6,172 6,214 6,943 7,112 8,481 9,68 DOE 9,964 12,782 14,479 14,321 13,574 13,182 10,877 10,029 10,286 10,361 9,234 8,690 8,834 8,961 9,52 NIHa 7,348 7,640 8,136 8,479 8,107 7,644 7,437 7,870 8,435 9,125 9,021 10,261 10,498 10,817 11,04 NSF 2,172 2,228 2,261 2,205 2,146 2,049 1,960 2,056 2,277 2,460 2,333 2,447 2,408 2,524 2,35 USDA 1,682 1,671 1,814 1,884 1,682 1,749 1,670 1,718 1,782 1,737 1,600 1,750 1,695 1,632 1,66 Interior 1,055 1,006 1,040 1,079 965 882 775 752 664 674 639 654 646 687 72 DOT 1,045 1,018 1,069 921 934 872 628 721 892 761 631 495 477 467 48 EPA 886 898 1,086 1,011 805 803 573 451 454 529 539 552 567 569 57 DOC 750 778 805 874 842 739 620 631 662 679 658 669 622 611 61 Othera 2,561 2,741 3,073 3,263 3,368 3,003 2,223 2,243 2,064 1,742 1,832 2,010 1,901 2,077 2,25 Total R&D 71,606 77,756 79,556 80,134 77,750 79,930 77,944 77,749 83,956 89,661 91,035 93,983 92,614 92,096 90,52 R&D: Defense 35,925 38,394 37,988 37,632 36,306 40,732 46,073 49,803 55,653 60,163 62,740 63,835 62,173 59,569 55,82 Nondefense 35,682 39,363 41,568 42,503 41,445 39,197 31,871 27,948 28,302 29,497 28,295 30,147 30,441 32,528 34,69 Basic research 8,016 8,898 11,410 11,821 12,019 10,936 10,946 12,122 12,891 13,510 13,602 14,446 14,425 15,212 15,36 NOTE: Includes conduct of R&D and R&D facilities. Constant dollar estimates based on deflators for research expenditures (see Table F- 11). aBetween FY 1991 and 1992, R&D from ADAMHA (HHS) transferred to NIH. ADAMHA R&D included in NIH totals for all years. bLatest estimate for FY 2002. CAAAS estimates of president's FY 2003 request. Source: AAAS Reports I through XXVI, based on OMB and agency R&D budget data.

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APPENDIX F 189 987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002h 2003C 9,512 57,854 6,943 7,112 8,690 8,834 0,261 10,498 2,447 2,408 1,750 1,695 654 646 495 477 552 567 669 622 2,010 1,901 55,270 51,593 49,283 48,810 49,051 43,252 41,833 41,224 41,514 40,267 40,132 39,960 40,705 46,047 48,866 8,481 9,689 10,760 11,039 11,130 11,456 11,194 10,867 10,426 10,451 10,028 9,494 9,417 9,491 9,515 8,961 9,520 9,720 10,508 9,399 8,248 7,593 7,227 6,931 6,807 7,189 6,956 7,365 7,756 7,418 10,817 11,045 11,891 12,434 12,488 12,757 12,736 13,162 13,620 14,051 15,475 17,234 18,864 21,146 23,576 2,524 2,355 2,508 2,547 2,542 2,732 2,836 2,755 2,703 2,680 2,755 2,931 3,162 3,271 3,254 1,632 1,667 1,843 1,963 1,852 1,862 1,760 1,714 1,735 1,673 1,698 1,776 2,077 2,165 1,888 687 723 821 831 820 862 791 658 659 574 515 618 592 612 560 467 482 545 802 784 781 788 692 682 632 627 607 684 722 656 569 578 608 636 627 716 656 556 663 683 690 558 546 549 559 611 617 711 754 1,002 1,245 1,323 1,112 1,075 1,169 1,118 1,174 981 1,017 980 2,077 2,257 2,366 2,622 2,386 2,661 2,453 2,067 2,415 2,408 2,509 2,461 2,783 2,910 2,593 3,983 92,614 92,096 90,525 91,056 92,946 92,081 86,572 83,963 82,034 82,424 81,395 82,736 83,769 87,176 95,686 99,865 3,835 62,173 0,147 30,441 4,446 14,425 59,569 55,829 53,477 53,270 53,174 46,649 44,773 44,314 44,646 43,485 43,432 43,161 44,002 49,608 52,383 32,528 34,697 37,578 39,676 38,907 39,921 39,189 37,750 37,777 37,842 39,304 40,608 43,174 46,078 47,480 15,212 15,366 16,433 16,722 16,975 16,678 16,298 16,639 16,679 16,638 17,991 19,470 20,358 21,925 22,726

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190 APPENDIX F TABLE F-3 Agricultural Research Funding in the Public and Private Sectors, 1970-1998 Public R&D Funding, Private R&D Funding, Public R& FY thousands of nominal dollars thousands of nominal dollars thousands 1970 536,619 464,300 2,450,316 1971 581,860 487,100 2,552,016 1972 627,100 507,400 2,668,510 1973 670,748 576,100 2,704,627 1974 729,227 669,290 2,710,881 1975 823,521 708,540 2,820,277 1976 898,363 817,780 2,916,762 1977 1,031,712 953,950 3,174,498 1978 1,157,070 1,079,109 3,315,386 1979 1,247,217 1,204,080 3,282,151 1980 1,367,212 1,453,024 3,216,969 1981 1,528,582 1,468,190 3,273,194 1982 1,641,571 1,651,512 3,302,960 1983 1,703,575 1,794,203 3,307,912 1984 1,768,951 2,045,965 3,228,012 1985 1,927,991 2,167,211 3,341,406 1986 2,014,782 2,320,865 3,357,970 1987 2,160,548 2,278,197 3,462,416 1988 2,301,184 2,571,360 3,491,933 1989 2,445,936 2,745,153 3,504,206 1990 2,598,294 2,971,347 3,539,910 1991 2,780,467 3,172,941 3,682,737 1992 2,913,161 3,207,266 3,763,773 1993 2,970,910 3,463,213 3,751,149 1994 3,111,548 3,556,593 3,789,948 1995 3,168,752 3,884,896 3,750,002 1996 3,148,023 3,960,789 3,626,754 1997 3,235,060 4,381,220 3,606,533 1998 3,403,899 4,559,514 3,648,338 Note: For information drawn from Inventory of Agricultural Research publications, data adjustments were necessary to produce consistent series for period. Data were not available from Inventory for 1971. Thus, the figure for 1971 is the average of 1970 and 1972. With respect to more recent years, CRIS stopped publishing Inventory in 1997 and moved to a Web-based reporting system. The new data system differs slightly from system used in Inventory. Data for 1998 do not include Forest Service's research budget. Constant dollar estimates are based on deflators for research expenditures (see Table F-ll). Source: Public numbers based on USDA Current Research Information System (CRIS), Inventory of Agricultural Research, various years; http://www.ers.usda.gov/data/agresearchfunding/; private num- bers based on Klotz et al. (1995).

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APPENDIX F Rectors, 191 Ling, nal dollars Public R&D Funding, thousands of nominal dollars Private R&D Funding, thousands of nominal dollars Total Agricultural R&D, thousands of 2000 dollars 2,450,316 2,552,016 2,668,510 2,704,627 2,710,881 2,820,277 2,916,762 3,174,498 3,315,386 3,282,151 3,216,969 3,273,194 3,302,960 3,307,912 3,228,012 3,341,406 3,357,970 3,462,416 3,491,933 3,504,206 3,539,910 3,682,737 3,763,773 3,751,149 3,789,948 3,750,002 3,626,754 3,606,533 3,648,338 2,120,091 2,136,404 2,159,149 2,322,984 2,488,067 2,426,507 2,655,130 2,935,231 3,092,003 3,168,632 3,418,880 3,143,876 3,322,961 3,483,890 3,733,513 3,755,998 3,868,108 3,650,957 3,901,912 3,932,884 4,048,157 4,202,570 4,143,754 4,372,743 4,332,025 4,597,510 4,563,121 4,884,303 4,886,939 4,570,408 4,688,419 4,827,659 5,027,611 5,198,948 5,246,784 5,571,892 6,109,729 6,407,389 6,450,783 6,635,850 6,417,071 6,625,921 6,791,802 6,961,525 7,097,404 7,226,077 7,113,373 7,393,845 7,437,090 7,588,068 7,885,308 7,907,528 8,123,892 8,121,974 8,347,512 8,189,876 8,490,836 8,535,276

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192 TABLE F-4 Amount and Distribution of Major Sources of Revenues of US State Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1980-2000 APPENDIX F Revenue, millions of current dollars Sources 1980 1990 2000 1980 Revenue, Regular federal appropriations 136.9 223.6 292.6 322.1 Hatch, regional research, and other nongrant funds 127.2 163.9 200.9 298.8 CSRS/CSREES special grants 9.6 39.7 47.0 22.6 Competitive grants, including NRI 20.0 44.7 Other federal government research funds 91.8 193.3 360.4 216.0 Contracts, grants, and cooperative agreements 24.4 49.5 75.0 57.4 with USDA agencies Contracts, grants, and cooperative agreements 67.4 143.9 285.4 158.6 with non-USDA federal agencies State government appropriations 446.9 877.9 1,117.8 1,051.5 Industry, commodity groups, foundationsb 74.0 210.0 340.9 174.1 Other funds (product sales) 55.2 91.6 118.0 129.8 Total 804.8 1,596.5 2,229.7 1,893.6 aObtained by deflating data in first three columns by using Huffman and Evenson (1993, pp. 95-97 and updated to 2000) agricultural-research price index with 2000 = 1.00. bAmount received from industry and "other nonfederal sources," excluding state appropriations and product sales or self-generated. Source: USDA 1982, 1991, 2001 CRIS data. TABLE F-5 Sources of Revenue for REE Intramural Research Expenditures, 1980-2000 Revenue, millions of current dollars Agency 1980 1990 2000 1980 Revenue, Agricultural Research Service 360.3 580.1 794.9 847.8 Regular federal appropriations 360.3 570.9 775.7 847.8 Other funds 0 9.2 19.2 0 Economic Research Service 42.6 51.3 72.5a 100.2 Regular federal appropriations 42.4 51.3 71.6 99.8 Other funds 0.2 0 0.9 0.4 Total ARS and ERS 402.9 631.4 867.4 948.0 Regular federal appropriations 402.7 622.2 947.6 Other funds 0.2 9.2 0.4 aObtained by deflating data in first three columns by using Huffman and Evenson (1993, pp. 95-97 and updated to 2000) agricultural-research price index with 2000 = 1.00. bData for 1999. ERS did not report any data for CRIS for 2000.

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APPENDIX F of 193 t dollars Revenue, millions of constant 2000 dollarsa Distribution, % 2000 1980 1990 2000 1980 1990 2000 292.6 200.9 47.0 44.7 360.4 75.0 285.4 1,117.8 340.9 118.0 2,229.7 322.1 298.8 22.6 216.0 57.4 158.6 1,051.5 174.1 129.8 1,893.6 305.0 223.6 54.2 27.3 263.7 67.5 196.3 1,197.7 286.5 125.0 2,178.0 292.6 200.9 47.0 44.7 360.4 75.0 285.4 1,117.8 340.9 118.0 2,229.7 17.0 [15.8] [1.2] 11.4 [3.0] [8.4] 55.5 9.2 6.9 00.0 14.0 [10.3] [2.5] [1.2] 12.1 [3.1] [9 0] 55.0 13.2 5.7 100.0 13.1 [9 0] [2.1] [2.0] 16.2 [3.4] [12.8] 50.1 15.3 5.3 100.0 Jitures, Revenue, millions of constant 2000 dollarsa 2000 1980 1990 2000 794.9 775.7 19.2 72.5a 71.6 0.9 867.4 847.8 847.8 o 100.2 99.8 0.4 948.0 947.6 0.4 790.3 777.8 12.5 69.9 69.9 o 860.2 847.7 12.5 794.9 775.7 19.2 74.8 73.9 0.9 869.7

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194 TABLE F-6 REE Agency Funding Allocation by Goal, FY 2000 APPENDIX F Funding, thousands of dollars (%) Goal ARS CSREES ERS NASS Total, REE Goal 1: To achieve 121,327 291,154 20,550 63,935 496,966 agricultural production (15.30) (25.74) (31.44) (64.36) (23.79) that is highly competitive in the global economy Goal 2: To provide a safe 326,716 228,945 3,744 3,950 563,355 and secure food and fiber (41.20) (20~24) (5.73) (3.98) (26.97) system Goal 3: To achieve a 72,731 238,175 16,144 0 327,050 healthier, more well- (9.17) (21.06) (24.70) (0) (15.66) nourished population Goal 4: To achieve 125,648 203,112 12,092 4,831 345,683 greater harmony (15.85) (17.96) (18.50) (4.86) (16.55) between agriculture and the environment Goal 5: To enhance 146,550 169,810 12,833 26,616 355,809 economic opportunities (18.48) (15.01) (19.63) (26.79) (17.03) and the quality of life among families and communities Total 792,972 1,131,196 65,363 99,332 2,088,863 Source: Agency FY 2001 performance plans.

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APPENDIX F 195 TABLE F-7 National Summary USDA, State Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Other Institutions, FY 2000 Allocation of REE Agricultural Research Fundsa Thousands Thousands Research Problem Area of Dollars % of Dollars Allocation of Public Agricultural Research Fundsb Administration 670 0.06 1,031 0.04 Natural Resources and Environment 173,802 15.24 507,072 17.49 Plants and Their Systems 420,591 Animals and Their Systems 201,307 36.87 17.65 976,032 675,705 33.68 Engineering and Support Systems 26,594 2.33 66,016 2.28 Food and Nonfood Products: Development, Processing, Quality, and Delivery 96,360 8.45 183,868 6.34 Economic Markets and Policy 30,717 2.69 132,892 4.59 Human Nutrition, Food Safety, and Human Health and Well-Being 174,077 15.26 278,796 9.62 Family and Community Systems Research Support, Administration, and Communication Total 6,987 0.61 9,524 0.83 1,140,628 100.00 40,423 1.39 36,221 1.25 2,898,056 100.00 aIncludes regular appropriations used for inhouse research by USDA research agencies (note that ERS and FS did not report to FY 2000 CRIS) and expenditures of formula and grant funding admin- istered by CSREES and distributed to state agricultural experiment stations and other cooperating institutions; programs included are Hatch, McIntire-Stennis, Evans-Allen, Animal Health, Special Grants, Competitive Grants, Small Business Innovation Research Grants, and other specific grant programs. bTotal public funds represent the sum of USDA-appropriated funding, CSREES-administered fund- ing, other funding from USDA, other federal funding, and state appropriations. Not included are expenditures of funds by the state agricultural experiment stations and other cooperating institutions received from sources outside federal government, including sale of products (self-generated), industry grants, and miscellaneous nonfederal sources.

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196 APPENDIX F TABLE F-8a Research, Education, and Economics by Function, Agency, and Type of Award, FY 1985-2001 Actual and FY 2002 Estimate Budget Authority in millions of nominal dollars Research CSREES Year ARS ERS NASS Formula Competitive Administrative NAL Extension 1985 494 47 8 199 54 45 12 1986 473 44 8 189 49 40 1987 521 45 3 189 47 136 11 1988 544 48 4 202 45 105 12 1989 569 50 3 203 40 100 14 1990 593 51 3 203 43 136 15 1991 631 54 3 212 73 160 17 1992 671 59 4 220 98 181 18 1993 672 59 4 220 98 157 18 1994 706 55 4 226 103 158 18 1995 710 54 4 226 101 156 18 1996 701 53 4 222 94 152 19 1997 711 54 3 222 112 155 19 1998 746 72 3 222 97 99 19 1999 795 63 4 237 119 111 20 2000 831 64 4 238 234 114 20 2001 924 68 4 240 252 145 20 2002 1,033 70 4 242 143 167 22

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APPENDIX F cy, and 197 Extension and Education CSREES Statistics Facilities rative NAL Formula Competitive Administrative NASS ARS Total 12 259 5 87 50 22 1,281 11 247 3 86 48 6 1,214 11 253 3 91 54 1 1,354 12 260 3 93 58 15 1,389 14 261 3 97 61 17 1,418 15 264 4 106 64 13 1,494 17 275 5 127 73 41 1,671 18 287 5 135 79 66 1,823 18 287 5 142 77 35 1,774 18 298 6 141 78 33 1,827 18 298 9 142 77 44 1,838 19 294 9 140 77 30 1,796 19 294 26 141 97 69 1,903 19 294 8 139 115 81 1,894 20 302 8 146 100 56 1,962 20 303 73 128 96 53 2,157 20 304 67 142 97 74 2,338 22 307 28 146 110 192 2,464

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198 APPENDIX F TABLE F-8b Research, Education, and Economics by Function, Agency, and Type of Award, FY 1985-2001 Actual and FY 2002 Estimate Budget Authority, millions of constant 2000 dollars Research CSREES Year ARS ERS NASS Formula Competitive Administrative NAL Extension 1985 856 81 14 345 94 78 21 1986 805 73 13 315 82 67 18 1987 835 72 5 303 75 218 18 1988 825 73 6 307 68 159 18 1989 815 72 4 291 57 143 20 1990 808 69 4 277 59 185 20 1991 836 72 4 281 97 212 23 1992 867 76 5 284 127 234 23 1993 848 74 5 278 124 198 23 1994 860 67 5 275 125 192 22 1995 840 64 5 267 120 185 21 1996 808 61 5 256 108 175 22 1997 793 60 3 247 125 173 21 1998 800 77 3 238 104 106 20 1999 820 65 4 245 123 115 21 2000 831 64 4 238 234 114 20 2001 880 65 4 229 240 138 19 2002 958 65 4 224 133 155 20 Note: Constant dollar estimates based on deflators for research expenditures (see Table F-ll).

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APPENDIX F Icy, and 199 Extension and Education CSREES Statistics Facilities rative NAL Formula Competitive Administrative NASS ARS Total 21 449 9 151 87 38 2,223 18 412 5 143 80 10 2,023 18 405 5 146 87 2 2,171 18 395 5 141 88 23 2,108 20 374 4 139 87 24 2,030 20 360 5 144 87 18 2,036 23 364 7 168 97 54 2,215 23 371 6 174 102 85 2,354 23 362 6 179 97 44 2,238 22 363 7 172 95 40 2,223 21 353 11 168 91 52 2,177 22 339 10 161 89 35 2,069 21 328 29 157 108 77 2,121 20 315 9 149 123 87 2,031 21 312 8 151 103 58 2,025 20 303 73 128 96 53 2,158 19 290 64 135 92 70 2,226 20 285 26 135 102 178 2,285 4-11).

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200 TABLE F-9 ARS Funding of Cooperative Activities, FY 1998-2001 APPENDIX F Funding, thousands of nominal dollars Cooperative activity 2001 2000 1999 1998 Cooperative agreements 91,561 76,015 67,945 51,907 Research support agreements 20,217 23,347 21,510 23,570 Research contracts 30 36 3,559 19,461 Grants 25,214 28,942 15,912 13,103 Total ARS obligations for extramural agreementsa 137,022 128,340 108,926 108,041 Total ARS budget authorizations 1,019,000 903,000 817,000 845,000 (13%) (14%) (13%) (13%) Extramural pass-through fundingC 106,180 87,458 84,164 79,161 a Does not include extramural pass-through funding, shown in last row. b With percentage of ARS budget. c Pass-through agreements initiated from funding appropriated to ARS. Source: ARS, 2002.

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APPENDIX F TABLE F-lOa Congressional Earmarks for ARS Research and CSREES Research, Education, and Extension, Nominal Dollars 201 Budget Authority, millions of nominal dollars CSREESa Year ARS Research Extension Total 1993 0 82 5 87 1994 8 81 6 94 1995 9 72 7 89 1996 6 71 7 84 1997 5 70 7 83 1998 15 76 6 97 1999 20 87 7 114 2000 22 86 7 116 2001 34 115 13 163 2002 55 132 12 199 Note: Budget authority means authority provided by law to incur financial obligations that will result in outlays. Sources of budget authority included in this analysis include annual appropriations, supple- mental appropriations, trust funds, and mandatory spending under substantive law. ARS estimates include $17.5 million made available under the Agricultural Risk Protection Act in 2001 and $113 million under Emergency Supplemental to Respond to Terrorism in 2002, consisting of $40 million for research and $73 million for facilities. CSREES estimates for 2002 do not include $20.6 million appropriated in Emergency Supplemental to Office of the Secretary and transferred to CSREES. a Estimates for CSREES earmarks are based on total appropriations for special research grants (includ- ing improved pest control) and federal administration, excluding amounts provided for CSREES administrative costs.

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202 TABLE F-lOb Congressional Earmarks for ARS Research and CSREES Research, Education, and Extension, Constant 2000 Dollars APPENDIX F Budget Authority, millions of constant 2000 dollars CSREESa Year ARS Research Extension Total 1993 0 104 8 112 1994 10 99 7 116 1995 11 85 8 104 1996 7 82 8 97 1997 6 78 8 92 1998 16 82 6 104 1999 21 90 7 118 2000 22 86 7 116 2001 32 110 12 154 2002 51 122 11 184 Note: Constant dollar estimates based on deflators for research expenditures (see Table F-ll). Budget authority means authority provided by law to incur financial obligations that will result in outlays. Sources of budget authority included in this analysis include annual appropriations, supple- mental appropriations, trust funds, and mandatory spending under substantive law. ARS estimates include $17.5 million made available under the Agricultural Risk Protection Act in 2001 and $113 million under Emergency Supplemental to Respond to Terrorism in 2002, consisting of $40 million for research and $73 million for facilities. CSREES estimates for 2002 do not include $20.6 million appropriated in Emergency Supplemental to Office of the Secretary and transferred to CSREES. a Estimates for CSREES earmarks are based on total appropriations for special research grants (in- cluding improved pest control) and federal administration, excluding amounts provided for CSREES administrative costs.

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APPENDIX F 203 TABLE Fell Price Index for Research, 2000 Constant Dollar R&D Deflators Year Deflator Year Deflator Year Deflator 1970 0.219 1971 0.228 1972 0.235 1973 0.248 1974 0.269 1975 0.292 1976 0.308 1977 0.325 1978 0.349 1979 0.38 1980 0.425 1981 0.467 1982 0.497 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 0.515 0.548 0.577 0.600 0.624 0.659 0.698 0.734 0.755 1992 0.774 1993 0.792 1994 0.821 1995 0.845 1996 0.868 1997 0.897 1998 0.933 1999 0.969 2000 1 2001 1.05 2002a 1.078 2003a 1.122 Notes: Research price index reflects cost of doing research in public universities over time, holding composition of inputs constant; 70% of weight is for faculty compensation (salary and benefits), and 30% for nonfaculty inputs. Faculty salary component is weighted average of salaries of faculty at assistant, associate, and full professor ranks. The cost of nonfaculty inputs is approximated by im- plicit price deflator for state and local government expenditures (of the Bureau of Economic Analy- sis). aThe value for this year is an estimate. Source: Huffman (2002).