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About the Authors Laurian ,1. Unnevehr, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL, Chair, March-December 2002 Dr. Unnevehr is a professor in the Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where she has been a member of the faculty since 1985. Her research focuses on the social-welfare implications of food safety and diet-health linkages. She spent 1993-1995 on leave at the US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service. She received a BA in economics from the University of California, Davis and MA and PhD in food economics from Stanford University. Dr. Unnevehr is a member of the Editorial Board of Food Policy and the Editorial Council of the Review of Agricultural Economics. Franklin M. Loew, Becker College, Worcester, MA, Chair, July 2000- March 2002 Dr. Loew is president of Becker College in Worcester, MA. Before joining Becker College, Dr. Loew was president and chief executive officer of Medical Foods, Inc. (1997-1998), where he served as chairman of the board and chairman of the Scientific Advisory Board. Dr. Loew's previous positions include: profes- sor and dean of veterinary medicine at Cornell University; dean of veterinary medicine and chairman of the Department of Environmental Studies at Tufts University; director of the Division of Comparative Medicine at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine; and professor of physiology, director of the Research Programs in Toxicology, and director of the Animal Resources Centre 217

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218 ABOUT THE AUTHORS at the University of Saskatchewan, Canada, where he was also a Medical Research Council fellow. Currently, Dr. Loew has appointments as a visiting scientist at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and as a senior fellow at Tufts University. In 1977, Dr. Loew received the Queen Elizabeth II Jubilee Medal from the gover- nor general of Canada for his work on animal welfare. In 1992, Loew was elected to the Institute of Medicine. He was a member of the National Research Council Board on Biology and Commission on Life Sciences and chair of the Council of the National Research Council Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources. He served on the National Research Council Committee on Improved Models for Toxicity Testing for Human Health Hazard Assessment and the Panel on Animal Health and Veterinary Medicine. He received a BS and a DVM from Cornell University and a PhD in nutrition from the University of Saskatchewan, Canada. Ransom Lee Baldwin, University of California, Davis, CA Dr. Baldwin is professor of animal science in the Department of Animal Science at the University of California, Davis. His research focuses on nutri- tional energetics, physiology of lactation, modeling of ruminant digestion and metabolism, and resource use in livestock production. He served on several National Research Council committees, including the Committee on Land-Grant Colleges of Agriculture and the Committee to Revise the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Dr. Baldwin chaired the National Research Council Subcommittee on Input-Output Relationships in Animal Production. Currently, he serves on the National Research Council Committee on Cost of and Payment for Animal Research. In 1993, Baldwin was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. He received a BS in animal industries from the University of Connecti- cut and both an MS in dairy nutrition and a PhD in biochemistry and nutrition from Michigan State University. Roger N. Beachy, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO Dr. Beachy is president of the Donald Danforth Plant Sciences Center in St. Louis, MO. He has expertise in plant biology and biotechnology and in crop production. His research focuses on virology, gene expression in plants, and the protection of crops from viruses by incorporation of viral genes into the plant genome. Dr. Beachy has headed the Division of Plant Biology at The Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California, where he was also codirector of the International Laboratory for Tropical Agricultural Biotechnology. Earlier, he was professor and head of the Center for Plant Science and Biotechnology at Washington University. His work at Washington University, in collaboration with Monsanto Co., led to development of the world's first genetically altered food crop, a variety of tomato that was modified for resistance to viral disease. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1997, received the Wolf

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ABOUT THE AUTHORS 219 Prize in Agriculture in 2001, and received the Dennis R. Hoagland Award from the American Society of Plant Biologists in 2000. Dr. Beachy serves on the board of directors for ICRISAT, a member of the Consultative Group on Inter- national Agricultural Research, and has been a consultant for several companies. He has served on many National Research Council committees, including the Committee on Biobased Industrial Products: National Research and Commercial- ization Priorities and the Committee on Biological Pest and Pathogen Control. He received a BA in biology from Goshen College in Goshen, Indiana, and a PhD in plant pathology from Michigan State University. Carolyn Branch Brooks, University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD Dr. Brooks is dean of the School of Agricultural and Natural Sciences and research director of Land-Grant Programs at the University of Maryland Eastern Shore (UMES). She has expertise in molecular biology and agricultural micro- biology, the system of historically black colleges and universities, and university administration. Dr. Brooks has also served UMES in various other capacities, including executive assistant to the president and chief of staff, interim chair of the Department of Agriculture, program coordinator of the Plant and Soil Science Group, codirector of the Center for Plant and Microbial Biotechnology, and director of the Scientific Enrichment Program for Undergraduate Minority Students. Dr. Brooks is a recipient of many professional awards and recogni- tions, including the First Annual White House Initiative for Historically Black Colleges and Universities Faculty Award for Excellence in Science and Technol- ogy and the Outstanding Educator Award from the Maryland Association of Higher Education. She has been an active participant in many professional activities, including the Minority Education Committee of the American Society of Microbiology's Board of Education and Training and numerous US Depart- ment of Agriculture and US Agency for International Development review panels. She is chair of the Association of Research Directors of the 1890 institutions and also represents the 1890 land-grant system on the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges' Board of Agriculture Assembly's Policy Board of Directors. In 1993, Dr. Brooks served on the National Research Council Panel for Review of Agricultural Sciences Research Proposals Under the US Agency for International Development's Research Grants Program for histori- cally black colleges and universities; and in 1995, she was appointed site review coordinator of the National Research Council Committee on Undergraduate Science Education. Dr. Brooks received her BS and MS in biology from Tuskegee University and a PhD in microbiology from Ohio State University.

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220 Elizabeth Chornesky, Carmel, CA ABOUT THE AUTHORS Dr. Chornesky is a freelance consultant and a research associate at the Uni- versity of California, Santa Cruz. She has broad science and policy experience in biodiversity conservation, natural-resource management, invasive species, marine ecosystems, and pesticide alternatives. Dr. Chornesky was director of conserva- tion research at The Nature Conservancy while working on this report. Previ- ously, she was director of stewardship at The Nature Conservancy, a project director and senior analyst at the US Congress Office of Technology Assessment, a research faculty member at Lehigh University, and a research associate at the Smithsonian Institution. She has served on several national advisory committees and as a consultant to organizations, including the National Research Council, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Union of Concerned Scientists, and the Henry A. Wallace Institute for Alternative Agriculture. Dr. Chornesky holds a BA in biology from Cornell University and a PhD in biology from the University of Texas at Austin. Edward A. Hiler, Texas A&M University System, College Station, TX Dr. Hiler is vice chancellor for agriculture and life sciences of the Texas A&M University System and dean of the College of Agriculture and Life Sci- ences. He is also director of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station and of the Texas Cooperative Extension. His expertise includes agricultural engineering, soil and water conservation engineering, bioenergy resources, and administration of education and research programs. Dr. Hiler' s previous positions include head of the Department of Agricultural Engineering, deputy chancellor for academic and research programs, and deputy chancellor for academic program planning and research. Dr. Hiler also consults for private firms on designing irrigation systems. He is on the Board of Directors of the Riley Memorial Foundation and the Board of CNH Global. He served as president of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers in 1991-1992. In 1987, he was elected to the National Academy of Engineering. He received a BS, an MS, and a PhD in agricultural engineering from the Ohio State University. Wallace Edgar Huffman, Iowa State University, Ames, IA Dr. Huffman is C.F. Curtiss Distinguished Professor of Agriculture and pro- fessor of economics and agricultural economics at Iowa State University, Ames, and a fellow of the American Association of Agricultural Economics. His research focuses on R&D management and policy, human capital for agriculture, agricultural productivity and technical change analysis, adoption of technology, agricultural household models, and migration and immigration. Dr. Huffman has been a member of many US Department of Agriculture and state agricultural

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ABOUT THE AUTHORS 221 experiment station research committees. He testified before US House and Senate committees on issues related to agricultural research, education, technology transfer, and the agricultural labor and commodity market. He serves as a reviewer for many professional journals, including the American Journal of Agri- cultural Economics, the American Economic Review, the Review of Economics and Statistics, and the Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics. He was a member of the National Research Council Committee on Evaluation of Trends in Competency Needs in Agricultural Research at the Doctoral & Post-Doctoral Personnel Level (1983-1988~. Dr. Huffman received a BS in agriculture from Iowa State University, and an MA and PhD in economics from the University of Chicago. Lonnie ,1. King, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI Dr. King is dean of the College of Veterinary Medicine at Michigan State University. He has extensive expertise in veterinary medicine and food safety and administrative experience in government and university systems. Previous positions he has held include administrator of the US Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) in Washington, DC, and associate administrator and deputy administrator for veterinary services in APHIS. Before his government career, Dr. King was in private practice. His other experience includes work as a field veterinary medical officer, station epidemi- ologist, and staff member in emergency programs and animal health information. Dr. King has also directed the American Veterinary Medical Association Office of Governmental Relations and is certified in the American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine. In 1998, he was a member of the National Research Council Committee on Ensuring Safe Food from Production to Consumption. He serves as president of the American Association of Veterinary Medicine Colleges, co- chair of the National Alliance for Food Safety, cochair of the National Commis- sion on Veterinary Economic Issues, and lead dean at Michigan State University for food safety with responsibility for the National Food Safety and Toxicology Center. Dr. King received his BS and DVM from Ohio State University and his MS in epidemiology from the University of Minnesota. He has also attended the Senior Executive Program at Howard University and received a master' s degree in public administration from American University. Larry Kuzminski, Duxbury, MA Dr. Kuzminski is retired from Ocean Spray Cranberries, Inc., where he held the position of vice president of technology, research and development, and technology/operations. He currently works as a consultant in food science and technology, technology and operations strategy, food safety, quality systems, and agricultural research that integrates crop production into product and consumer

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222 ABOUT THE AUTHORS benefit. Dr. Kuzminski has held various positions with the Kellogg Company, including director of food research with Kellogg US and as senior vice president of science and quality, director of noncereal manufacturing, and senior scientist with Kellogg Canada. He is a past president of the Riley Memorial Foundation and has served on numerous boards and advisory committees, including current service on the Food Advisory Committee to the Food and Drug Administration. Dr. Kuzminski received his BA and MA in food chemistry from the University of Toronto, his PhD in food science from the University of Massachusetts, and his MBA from Western Michigan University. William B. Lacy, University of California, Davis, CA Dr. Lacy is vice provost of University Outreach and International Programs and professor of sociology in the Department of Human and Community Devel- opment at the University of California, Davis. He has conducted extensive research on the sociology of science and agriculture. Dr. Lacy was director of the Cornell Cooperative Extension and associate dean at Cornell University and assistant dean for research and assistant director of the experiment station, Penn- sylvania State University. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and past president of the Rural Sociological Society. He received his BS from Cornell University and his MA and PhD from the Uni- versity of Michigan. Thomas L. Lyon, Cooperative Resources International, Shawano, WI Mr. Lyon is chief executive officer at Cooperative Resources International, Shawano, WI. He has broad experience in dairy cattle breeding and production, farm operations, and business management. Before his current position, Mr. Lyon was general manager at 21st Century Genetics, where he also held positions in marketing and public relations. Mr. Lyon has undertaken many professional activities in cooperatives, dairy industry, government, universities, and the local community in many capacities, including president of the Wisconsin Federation of Cooperatives, board chairman of the National Cooperative Business Associa- tion, member of the National Rural Development Task Force & Co-op 2000 Com- mittee, president of the National Association of Animal Breeders, member of four Wisconsin gubernatorial commissions, member of the Executive Committee of the National Agricultural, Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board, and president of the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Mr. Lyon received his BS in dairy science from Iowa State University.

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ABOUT THE AUTHORS Kristen W. McNutt, Consumer Choices, Inc., Santa Cruz, CA 223 Dr. McNutt is president of Consumer Choices, Inc. and editor of Consumer Magazines Digest. She provides consulting services to public- and private-sector clients on consumer communication on food-related health topics. She occasion- ally writes the editorial column "In the Consumer Interest" for Nutrition Today and previously wrote "A View from America" for the British Nutrition Founda- tion Bulletin. Dr. McNutt is also associate editor of the Encyclopedia of Food Science and Technology. She served on the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Advisory Council and was a member of the 1998 National Institutes of Health Office of Alternative Medicine Special Emphasis Panel. She has also served on the Food and Drug Administration Food Advisory Committee. Dr. McNutt has been a member of the National Research Council Committee on Technological Options to Improve Nutritional Attributes of Animal Products, the Cooperative Program for NAS/ASRT (Egypt), and most recently the National Research Council Subcommittee on Drug Use in Food Animals. Dr. McNutt received a BA in chemistry from Duke University, an MS in nutrition from Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons, and a PhD in bio- chemistry from Vanderbilt University. She also received a ID from DePaul College of Law. William L. Ogren, Hilton Head Island, SC Dr. Ogren is retired research leader in the Photosynthesis Research Unit of the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the US Department of Agriculture. He has broad experience in research program administration, biochemistry, the physiology and genetics of photosynthesis and photorespiration, crop physiology, crop production, and plant science. He has been a member of the National Academy of Sciences since 1986. Dr. Ogren's professional experience includes plant physiologist at ARS and professor in the Department of Agronomy, Univer- sity of Illinois. He received many professional honors and awards, including the Crop Science Award from the Crop Science Society of America, the Charles F. Kettering Award for excellence in photosynthesis research from the American Society of Plant Biologists, the US Department of Agriculture Superior Service Award, and the Alexander von Humboldt Medal for contributions to American agriculture; he is a fellow of the American Society of Agronomy and the Ameri- can Academy of Arts and Sciences. Dr. Ogren received a BS in chemistry from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and a PhD in biochemistry from Wayne State University.

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224 David Pimentel, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY ABOUT THE AUTHORS Dr. Pimentel is professor of ecology and agricultural sciences in the Depart- ment of Entomology, Cornell University. He has broad expertise in ecology and in ecological and economic aspects of agricultural sciences. His past positions include professor and head of the Department of Entomology and Limnology at Cornell University and chief of the Tropical Research Laboratory, US Public Health Service in Puerto Rico. Dr. Pimentel served on many National Research Council study committees and panels, chaired the Environmental Studies Board and the Board of Science and Technology for International Development, and was a member of the Committee on the Role of Alternative Farming Methods in Modern Production Agriculture. He received a BS from the University of Massa- chusetts and a PhD from Cornell University and was an Organization for Euro- pean Economic Cooperation fellow at Oxford University. Robert,1. Reginato, Chandler, AZ Dr. Reginato has extensive experience in theoretical and experimental soil science and remote-sensing techniques to assess crop stress. He also has broad experience in research-program administration and outreach activities. He has held positions at the US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service including associate administrator, director of the Pacific West Area, and research leader of the Phoenix, AZ, Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Research Unit. Dr. Reginato served as the interim director of the statewide Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program for the University of California. He received a BS in soil management from the University of California at Davis, an MS in agronomy from the University of Illinois, and a PhD in soil science from the University of California, Riverside. John W. Suttie, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI Dr. Suttie is a retired professor of biochemistry and nutritional sciences at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. He has broad expertise in biochemistry and human nutrition. His research activities are directed toward the metabolism, mechanism of action, and nutritional significance of vitamin K. Dr. Suttie has served as president of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences. He has also served as president of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. In 1996, Dr. Suttie was elected to the National Academy of Sciences, and he is a past member of the National Research Council's Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources. Dr. Suttie received his BS, MS, and PhD from the Uni- versity of Wisconsin, Madison.