support higher education in agriculture; and maintain the food supply (7 USC § 3101).

ARS research, carried out by field scientists located throughout the United States, involves more than 1200 projects organized into 22 national programs. Among those related to livestock production are the national programs directed to air quality and manure and by-product utilization. Research components of the air quality program focus on particulates, agriculturally emitted ammonia, and malodorous compounds from animal production operations, as well as ozone impacts and volatilized pesticides and other synthetic organic compounds. Among the projected outcomes related to livestock facilities are “[i]mproved understanding of the physics of dust emissions … with state-of-knowledge control measures,” a “database of ammonia emission factors for animal production facilities, manure storage areas, and manure and fertilizer field application sites,” and improved understanding of the formation, interaction, and transport of odorous compounds (ARS, 2002). The ARS National Program on manure and by-product utilization focuses on nutrient management (protection of soil, water, and air from excess nutrients), atmospheric emissions, and pathogens. Projected outcomes include more efficient conversion of feed, identification of alternative uses of manure, development of “management practices, treatment technologies and decision tools” to improve CNMPs and help meet TMDLs, and practices and technologies to control pathogens (ARS, 2002).


The Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service carries out USDA functions related to cooperative state research programs and cooperative extension and education programs (7 USC § 6971). The mission of CSREES is to advance “creative and integrated research, education, and extension programs in the food, agriculture and related sciences” (CSREES, 2002). Among its primary functions are leadership for programs that support university-based and other institutional research, education, and extension, and administration of federal assistance for these programs. To accomplish its mission, CSREES works with the land-grant universities, other colleges, universities, and research and educational organizations to develop programs for agricultural research, extension, and higher education. Land-grant universities and other partners carry out the programs (CSREES, 2002). Land-grant universities and certain other educational institutions receive funds, allocated to states by formula, to carry out research and outreach programs in food and agricultural sciences.

CSREES, like ARS, has projects related to livestock production. For example, an animal waste management program, with nationwide collaboration, is intended to decrease environmental impairment and achieve other environmental benefits by educating producers, increasing the use of best management practices, providing training for CAFOs, and other activities (CSREES, 2001).

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