Many different federal environmental statutes and their associated regulations may affect AFOs. Air pollutants are regulated primarily by the Clean Air Act, which includes measures to govern criteria pollutants and hazardous air pollutants. States play an important role in implementing CAA provisions and issuing permits for facilities under their state implementation plans. Some air emissions are also regulated by CERCLA and EPCRA. Water pollution is governed by the Clean Water Act and, in some areas, the Coastal Zone Management Act. The EPA plays a major role in implementing these statutes, with significant cooperation from the states. In addition to these regulatory programs, statutory programs implemented by the USDA offer technical assistance and financial incentives to livestock producers.

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