Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 198
Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs B Acronyms and Glossary AALA: American Agricultural Law Association Accuracy: The ability of a measurement to match the actual value of the quantity being measured. AED: Aerodynamic equivalent particle diameter AER: Allowable emission rate AFO: Animal feeding operation. As defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 122.23), a “lot or facility” where animals “have been, are, or will be stabled or confined and fed or maintained for a total of 45 days or more in any 12 month period and crops, vegetation, forage growth, or post-harvest residues are not sustained in the normal growing season over any portion of the lot or facility.” Anthropogenic: Caused by humans. APA: Administrative Procedure Act APRP: Air Pollution Regulatory Process ARS: Agricultural Research Service (USDA) ASAE: American Society of Agricultural Engineers ASM: Aerosol mass spectrometer ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials Atmospheric stability: a property that depends on inversion strength—how rapidly air temperature rises with altitude (in units of degrees Celsius per 100 m). Strong inversions near the ground tend to stabilize the atmosphere, trap emissions, and result in higher pollutant concentrations. For a discussion of meteorological effects on carbon monoxide concentrations, see NRC (2002b).
OCR for page 199
Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs AU: Animal unit: A unit of measure used to compare different animal types. • EPA (66 Fed. Reg. 2960-3138): 1 cattle excluding mature dairy and veal cattle; 0.7 mature dairy cattle; 2.5 swine weighing more than 55 pounds; 10 swine weighing 55 pounds or less; 55 turkeys; 100 chickens; and 1 veal calf. • USDA: 1000 pounds of live animal weight. BACT: Best achievable control technology bar: A unit of pressure equal to one atmosphere (14.7 pounds per square inch). BAT: Best available technology (economically achievable) Bioaerosol: Particulate matter in the atmosphere containing materials of biological origin that may cause disease, such as toxins, allergens, viruses, bacteria, and fungi. BMP: Best management practice BOD: Biochemical oxygen demand BPT: Best practicable control technology (currently available) BST: Bovine somatotropin BW: Body weight C: Carbon C2, C10, C16: Hydrocarbons with 2, 10, and 16 carbon atoms, respectively. CAA: Clean Air Act CAFO: Concentrated animal feeding operation (see Appendix E). CCC: Commodity Credit Corporation, a government-owned and operated corporation, was created in 1933 to stabilize, support, and protect farm income and prices. It now operates as a federal corporation within USDA; the Secretary of Agriculture chairs its Board of Directors. CCC programs are carried out through the personnel and facilities of other USDA organizations, including the Farm Service Agency and the Natural Resources Conservation Service. CCC funds are used for a number of conservation programs, include EQIP (67 Fed. Reg. 48431), the Conservation Reserve Program, the Wetlands Reserve Program, and the Farmland Protection Program. CCN: Cloud condensation nuclei CERCLA: Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act cfm: Cubic feet per minute CFR: Code of Federal Regulations CFU: Colony forming units (bacteria formed on nutrient media) CH4: Methane CNMP: Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan CO2: Carbon dioxide COD: Chemical oxygen demand CRP: Conservation Reserve Program CSP: Conservation Security Program
OCR for page 200
Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs CSREES: Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (USDA) CWA: Clean Water Act CZARA: Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments CZMA: Coastal Zone Management Act Denitrification: Reduction of nitrates or nitrites to nitrogen-containing gases. DHIA: Dairy Herd Improvement Association DM: Dry matter DMI: Dry matter intake DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid DOAS: Differential optical absorption spectroscopy dscm: Dry standard cubic meter Electronic nose: An array of gas sensors that are combined with pattern recognition software to mimic human olfactory response (Lacey, 1998). ELG: Effluent limitation guideline Emission flux: The rate of mass emission per unit of area (e.g., tonnes per hour per hectare), typically from an area such as a waste lagoon or field. Emission inventory: A list showing the sources and amounts (e.g., tonnes) of a pollutant emitted from a defined area for a period of time, usually one year. Emission rate: The rate of mass emission (e.g., tonnes per hour). EPA: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPCRA: Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act EQIP: Environmental Quality Incentives Program Feedlot: An animal feeding operation where beef cattle are finished to slaughter weight; it consists of fenced earthen or concrete paddocks with cattle having little of no access to pasture. FEP: Tetrafluoroethylene-hexafluoropropylene copolymer FID: Flame ionization detector FPM: Flame photometric detector FRM: Federal reference method FSA: Farm Service Agency (USDA) ft2: Square feet FTIR: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy g: Gram g/cm3: Grams per cubic centimeter GC: Gas chromatography GC-EC: Gas chromatography with electron capture detection GC-FID: Gas chromatography with flame ionization detection GC-MS: Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry GLAS: Ground-level area source ha: Hectare; an area 100 meters square, about 2.5 acres HAP: Hazardous air pollutant HC: Hydrocarbon
OCR for page 201
Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs HNO3: Nitric acid H2S: Hydrogen sulfide H2SO4: Sulfuric acid Hz: Hertz (cycles per second) IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ISCST: Industrial Source Complex Short Term kg: Kilogram, or 1000 grams (about 2.2 pounds) km: Kilometer, or 1000 meters kwh: Kilowatt-hour L: Liter LAER: Lowest achievable emission rate lbs: pounds LD-50: The dose lethal to 50 percent of the laboratory animals tested. Lidar: Light detection and ranging. A device similar to radar except that it emits pulsed laser light rather than microwaves. LLPS: Low-level point source LOAEL: Lowest observed adverse effect level LU: Live unit, 500 kg of body weight m: Meter m3: Cubic meter MACT: Maximum achievable control technology Manure: A mixture of animal feces and urine, which may also include litter or bedding materials. MCF: Methane conversion factor MeSH: Methanethiol Mg: megagram. An SI unit of mass equal to 1 million grams or 1000 kg. This means that the megagram is identical to the tonne (metric ton). Large masses are almost always stated in tonnes in commercial applications, but megagrams are often used in scientific contexts. One megagram equals about 2204.623 pounds. μg/m3: Micrograms per cubic meter μm: Micrometer or micron (10−6 meter) MMD: Mass median diameter MMTCE: Millions of metric tonnes carbon equivalent (used to express the greenhouse effect of methane and other gases relative to carbon dioxide). MS: Mass spectroscopy MUN: Milk urea nitrogen mV: millivolts MWPS: Midwest Plan Service (an organization of extension and research agricultural engineers). N: Nitrogen N2: Molecular nitrogen NA: Nonattainment area
OCR for page 202
Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs NAAQS: National Ambient Air Quality Standards NaNO3: Sodium nitrate NBS: National Bureau of Standards (now NIST) NESHAPS: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants NH3: Ammonia NH4+: Ammonium ion NIST: National Institute of Standards and Technology Nitrification: Oxidation of ammonia or an ammonium ion compound to nitric acid, nitrous acid, or any nitrate or nitrite, especially by the action of nitrobacteria. NMHC: Nonmethane hydrocarbon NO: Nitric oxide N2O: Nitrous oxide NO2: Nitrogen dioxide NOAEL: No observed adverse effect level NODA: Notice of data availability NOV: Notice of violation NOx: NO and NO2 (rapidly interconverted in the atmosphere) NOy: All oxidized nitrogen species in the atmosphere NPDES: National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Nr: Reactive nitrogen (all nitrogen other than N2). The term reactive nitrogen (Nr) is used in this report to denote all biologically active, photochemically reactive, and radiatively active nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere and biosphere of the earth and to distinguish all reactive forms of nitrogen from nonreactive gaseous dinitrogen (N2). Thus, Nr includes (1) inorganic reduced forms of nitrogen (e.g., NH3, NH4+), (2) inorganic oxidized forms of nitrogen (e.g., NOx, HNO3, N2O, NO3−), and (3) a wide variety of organic nitrogen compounds including urea, amino acids, amines, proteins, nucleic acids, and so forth. NRC: National Research Council NRCS: Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA) NSPS: New Source Performance Standards NSR: New source review NTRM: NIST Traceable Reference Material NUE: Nitrogen utilization efficiency (the ratio of nitrogen in animal product to nitrogen in feed consumed). Nutrient excretion factor: An estimate of the amount of a nutrient element (e.g., N) excreted, usually reported as kilograms per day (or year) per animal (or animal unit or kilograms of body weight). ODT: Odor detection threshold. The minimum concentration of odorant(s) detectable by 50 percent of the population (represented by an odor panel). ORP: Oxidation-reduction potential
OCR for page 203
Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs OU: Odor unit. The amount of odorant(s) in 1 m3 of air detectable by 50 percent of the population OUE: European odor unit is the amount of odorant(s) that, when evaporated into 1 cubic meter of neutral gas at standard conditions, elicits a physiological response from a panel (detection threshold) equivalent to that elicited by 1 European Reference Odor Mass (erom), evaporated in 1 m3 of neutral gas at standard conditions. One erom is equivalent to 123 mg n-butanol (CAS 71-36-3). PAN: Peroxyacetyl nitrate PBL: Planetary boundary layer PCR: Polymerase chain reaction PET: Polyethyleneterephalate (Nalophan) PF-LIF: Photolytic fragmentation laser-induced fluorescence PM: Particulate matter PM2.5: Particulate matter having an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less. PM10: Particulate matter having an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less. PNP: Permit nutrient plan Point source: “[A]ny discernible, confined and discrete conveyance, including but not limited to any pipe, ditch, channel,…concentrated animal feeding operation,…from which pollutants are or may be discharged. This term does not include agricultural stormwater discharges and return flows from irrigated agriculture” (33 USC § 1362(14)). ppb: Parts per billion (by volume) ppd: Pounds per day ppm: Parts per million (by volume) Precision: The degree of agreement between two or more results on the same property of identical test material expressed as the repeatability or reproducibility of an instrument reading the results. PSD: Particle size distribution PSD: Prevention of significant deterioration psi: Pounds per square inch PTFE: Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) PVF: Polyvinylfluoride (Tedlar) REA: Relaxed eddy accumulation RHA: Rolling herd average RNA: Ribonucleic acid ROG: Reactive organic gase RQ: Reportable quantity S: Sulfur gas SAPRA: State air pollution regulatory agency SCD: Sulfur chemiluminescence detector SF6: Sulfur hexafluoride (used as an atmospheric tracer)
OCR for page 204
Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs SIP: State implementation plan SO2: Sulfur dioxide SPM: Single point air monitor SPME: Solid-phase microextraction. A method used to concentrate the components in odor samples prior to analysis. SRM: Standard reference material STPD: Standard temperature and pressure, dry Synoptic: Relating to weather conditions that exist simultaneously over a large area. TAN: Total ammoniacal nitrogen TDLS: Tunable diode laser spectroscopy Tg: Teragram. 1 × 1012 g, or 1 million metric tonnes TKN: Total Kjeldahl nitrogen TMDL: Total maximum daily load TNRCC: Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission tpy: Tons (short) per year TRS: Total reduced sulfur (includes H2S and mercaptans) TS: Total solids TSP: Total suspended particulates Uncertainty: The estimated amount or percentage by which an observed or calculated value may differ from the true value. USC: United States Code USDA: U.S. Department of Agriculture USDC: U.S. Department of Commerce VFA: Volatile fatty acid VOC: Volatile organic compound VS: Volatile solids. The weight lost upon ignition at 550 °C—an approximation of moisture and organic matter present (using Method 2540 E of the American Public Health Association).
Representative terms from entire chapter: