Beef

Dry matter intake and protein feeding requirements for typically managed animals were determined (NRC, 2000). Mature body weight was assumed to be 500 kg for small breeds (e.g., Angus) and 635 kg for large breeds (e.g., Simental). Growth rates were assumed to be 1.3 kg/d for small breeds and 1.5 kg/d for large breeds. Growth rates depend on diet energy and protein concentrations and would greatly affect excretion per day. Mature cows were assumed to be six months, postcalving.

Swine

Dry matter intake and protein feeding requirements for typically managed animals were determined (NRC, 1998a). Growing pigs were assumed to be gaining 320 g lean body mass per day from 20-kg body weight to harvesting. Bred sows were assumed to weigh 140 kg at breeding. Sulfur intake was assumed to be the amount needed to meet the requirements for methionine and cystine. Apparent dry matter digestibility was assumed to be 82 percent, and carbon was assumed to represent 41.5 percent of excreted dry matter.

Poultry

Dry matter intake and protein feeding requirements for typically managed animals were determined (NRC, 1994). For meat animals, the total intake was calculated by week and for the duration of feeding; then the average excretion per day over the course of the entire production time was calculated. Broilers were assumed to be harvested at seven weeks and roasters at nine weeks. Sulfur intake was assumed to be from required sulfur amino acids multiplied by the sulfur percentages of those amino acids. For nitrogen and sulfur retention estimates for turkeys, the same composition per gram of egg was assumed as for chicken eggs, but the egg size was assumed to be 96 g (Siopes, 1999), with an average of 0.8 egg per day.



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