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## Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs (2003) Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources (BANR)Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology (BEST)

### Citation Manager

. "Appendix F: Ammonia Emissions from Manure Storage." Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2003.

 Page 219

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Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs

tion at the end of previous day, [TAN]k−1, and the ammonia generated on the kth day (TMTAN,k, grams) divided by the volume (V, cubic meters) of the liquid manure in storage, as shown below:

[TAN] k = [TAN]k−1 + TMTAN,k /V.

The mass-transfer coefficient KL is a function of manure temperature, air temperature, wind velocity, and relative humidity. Various equations for KL are available in the literature. However, most of them were developed using controlled experiments by means of convective mass-transfer chambers, and have not been well validated using field-scale experiments. More research is needed to calibrate and validate them. An example is given below is based on the two-film theory.

#### AMMONIA MASS-TRANSFER COEFFICIENT

The mass-transfer coefficient for ammonia as derived from the two-film theory (Whitman, 1923) is given as follows:

where KL is the overall mass-transfer coefficient in meters per second, KH is Henry’s law constant (dimensionless) calculated as a function of water temperature (Taq, kelvin),

and and are mass-transfer coefficients (meters per second) through gaseous and liquid films, respectively, at the interface of water and air, and are related to the diffusivities (square meters per second) of ammonia and water in air ( and ), and of ammonia and oxygen in water ( and ):

 Page 219
 Front Matter (R1-R22) Executive Summary (1-13) 1. Introduction (14-25) 2. Livestock Agriculture and Animal Feeding Operations (26-49) 3. Air Emissions (50-73) 4. Measuring Emissions (74-97) 5. Approaches for Estimating Emissions (98-128) 6. Government Regulations and Programs (129-151) 7. Improving Knowledge and Practices (152-168) 8. Conclusions (169-175) References (176-194) Appendix A: Statement of Task (195-197) Appendix B: Acronyms and Glossary (198-204) Appendix C: Bioaerosols (205-206) Appendix D: Nitrogen and Sulfur Contents of Animal Products and Live Animals -- Sample Excretion Predictions (207-213) Appendix E: Animal Units (214-216) Appendix F: Ammonia Emissions from Manure Storage (217-221) Appendix G: Regulatory Action Levels by Selected Atmospheric Pollutant (222-223) Appendix H: Regulatory Action Levels by Regulatory Requirement and Action Status (224-225) Appendix I: Emission Factors for a Feed Mill or Grain Elevator (226-227) Appendix J: Public Meeting Agendas (228-233) Appendix K: Geographic Distribution of Livestock and Poultry Production in the United States for 1997 (234-240) Appendix L: Emisson Factors in Published Literature (241-254) About the Authors (255-260) Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications (261-264)