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Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs
lina Department of Environmental and Natural Resources, 1999) were identified as “preliminary,” and in one case (Kroodsma et al., 1988), the airflow measurement equipment was not calibrated.
Emission factors for NH3 were also taken from nine review articles (EPA, 2001a); three of these modeled or interpreted previously reported information with the objective of determining emission factors (Battye et al., 1994; Grelinger, 1998; Grelinger and Page, 1999). Several of the reviews reported factors used in other countries, but not the original research used to develop them. Other reviews summarized data from primary sources that had already been considered. Thus, the review articles may not provide new information.
Most measurements and estimates reported did not represent a full life cycle of animal production. As animals grow or change physiological state, their nutrient excretion patterns vary, altering the NH3 volatilization patterns (Amon et al., 1997). A single measurement over a short period of time will not capture the total emission for the entire life cycle of the animal. In addition, most measurements for manure storage represent only part of the storage period. The emissions from storage vary depending on length of storage, changing input from the animal system, and seasonal effects such as wind, precipitation (Hutchinson et al., 1982), and temperature (Andersson, 1998). Only one article reported measurements over an entire year (Aneja et al., 2000), although the measurements may not have been continuous. In this case, NH3 emissions were measured from an anaerobic lagoon using dynamic flow-through chambers during four seasons. Summer emissions were 13 times greater than those in winter, and the total for the year was 2.2 kg NH3-N (nitrogen) per animal (mean live weight = 68 kg) per year.
Expressing NH3 emission factors on a per annum and per animal unit (AU) basis facilitates calculation of total air emissions and accounts for variation due to size of AFOs, but it does not account for some of the largest sources of variation in emissions. Clearly, there is a great deal of variation in reported measurements among AFOs represented by a single model. For example, only two references were provided for beef drylot NH3 emission factors, but the values reported were 4.4 and 18.8 kg N/yr per animal (see EPA, 2001a, Table 8-11). For swine operations with pit storage, mean values reported in eight studies ranged from 0.03 to 2.0 kg/yr per pig of less than 25-kg body weight (see EPA 2001a, Table 8-17). This higher rate represents 66 percent of the nitrogen estimated to be excreted by feeder pigs per year (see EPA, 2001a, Table 8-10). The actual variation among AFOs represented by a single model cannot be determined without data representing the entire population of AFOs to be modeled. This would require greater replication and geographic diversity. Much of the variation among studies within a single type of model farm can be attributed to different geographic locations or seasons and the different methods and time frames used to measure the emission factors.
The approach in EPA (2001a) was to average all reported values in selected publications—both refereed and nonrefereed—giving equal weight to each ar-