2002 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research's Air and Surface Weapons Technology Program

Committee for the Review of ONR's Air and Surface Weapons Technology Program

Naval Studies Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
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2002 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research's Air and Surface Weapons Technology Program 2002 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research's Air and Surface Weapons Technology Program Committee for the Review of ONR's Air and Surface Weapons Technology Program Naval Studies Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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2002 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research's Air and Surface Weapons Technology Program THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. N00014-00-G-0230, DO #13, between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of the Navy. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08601-9 Copies available from: Naval Studies Board National Academies 500 Fifth Street, Room W904 Washington, DC 20001 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624–6242 or (202) 334–3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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2002 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research's Air and Surface Weapons Technology Program THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts and Dr. Wm. A.Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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2002 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research's Air and Surface Weapons Technology Program COMMITTEE FOR THE REVIEW OF ONR'S AIR AND SURFACE WEAPONS TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM L.DAVID MONTAGUE, Menlo Park, California, Chair ALAN BERMAN, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University VICTOR C.D.DAWSON, Poolesville, Maryland EARL H.DOWELL, Duke University MILTON FINGER, Livermore, California ALFRED B.GSCHWENDTNER, Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology DIMITRIS C.LAGOUDAS, Texas A&M University JOHN THEODORE PARKER, Annapolis, Maryland ROBERT F.STENGEL, Princeton University VERENA S.VOMASTIC, The MITRE Corporation STEPHEN D.WEINER, Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Staff RONALD D.TAYLOR, Director CHARLES F.DRAPER, Study Director MARY G.GORDON, Information Officer SUSAN G.CAMPBELL, Administrative Assistant IAN M.CAMERON, Project Assistant SIDNEY G.REED, JR., Consultant

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2002 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research's Air and Surface Weapons Technology Program NAVAL STUDIES BOARD VINCENT VITTO, Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc., Chair JOSEPH B.REAGAN, Saratoga, California, Vice Chair ARTHUR B.BAGGEROER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ALAN BERMAN, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, Special Adviser JAMES P.BROOKS, Northrop Grumman Ship Systems JOHN D.CHRISTIE, Logistics Management Institute RUTH A.DAVID, Analytic Services, Inc. PAUL K.DAVIS, RAND and RAND Graduate School of Policy Studies ANTONIO L.ELIAS, Orbital Sciences Corporation BRIG “CHIP” ELLIOTT, BBN Technologies FRANK A.HORRIGAN, Bedford, Massachusetts RICHARD J.IVANETICH, Institute for Defense Analyses HARRY W.JENKINS, ITT Industries MIRIAM E.JOHN, Sandia National Laboratories DAVID V.KALBAUGH, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University ANNETTE J.KRYGIEL, Great Falls, Virginia WILLIAM B.MORGAN, Rockville, Maryland JOHN H.MOXLEY III, Korn/Ferry International ROBERT B.OAKLEY, National Defense University NILS R.SANDELL, JR., ALPHATECH, Inc. JAMES M.SINNETT, Ballwin, Missouri WILLIAM D.SMITH, Fayetteville, Pennsylvania RICHARD L.WADE, Risk Management Sciences MITZI WERTHEIM, Center for Naval Analyses Navy Liaison Representatives RADM LEWIS W.CRENSHAW, JR., USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N81 RADM JAY M.COHEN, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N91 Marine Corps Liaison Representative LTGEN EDWARD HANLON, JR., USMC, Commanding General, Marine Corps Combat Development Command Staff RONALD D.TAYLOR, Director CHARLES F.DRAPER, Senior Program Officer MICHAEL L.WILSON, Program Officer (as of September 3, 2002) MARY G.GORDON, Information Officer SUSAN G.CAMPBELL, Administrative Assistant IAN M.CAMERON, Project Assistant

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2002 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research's Air and Surface Weapons Technology Program Preface The mission of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) is to maintain a close relationship with the research and development community to support long-range research, foster discovery, nurture future generations of researchers, produce new technologies that meet known naval requirements, and provide innovations in fields relevant to the future Navy and Marine Corps. Accordingly, ONR supports research activities across a broad range of scientific and engineering disciplines. As one means of ensuring that its investments appropriately address naval priorities and requirements and that its programs are of high scientific and technical quality, ONR requires that each of its departments undergo an annual review (with a detailed focus on about one-third of the reviewed department's programs). The Air and Surface Weapons Technology program reviewed in this report resides within the Strike Technology Division (Code 351) of the Naval Expeditionary Warfare S&T Department (Code 35) of ONR. At the request of ONR, the National Research Council (NRC) established the Committee for the Review of ONR's Air and Surface Weapons Technology Program to review and evaluate discovery and invention (D&I) thrusts (ordnance, directed energy, gun weaponry, precision targeting and guidance, and propulsion and aeromechanics) and air and surface weapons objectives, components, and interfaces in two of ONR's Future Naval Capabilities (FNCs) programs (Time Critical Strike and Missile Defense). The committee selected the review criteria. The committee met once, May 14–16, 2002, in Washington, D.C., to both gather information and prepare an initial draft report. The 3-day meeting was divided into two parts: The first comprised presentations by and interactions with project managers (and ONR-supported principal investigators) responsible for various program components, and the second was devoted to discussing the issues, developing consensus, and drafting the committee's findings and recommendations. (The committee members received reading material from the sponsor prior to the first meeting.) The committee's report represents its consensus views on the issues posed in the charge.

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2002 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research's Air and Surface Weapons Technology Program Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Eugene E.Covert, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Jose B.Cruz, Jr., Ohio State University, William A.Davis, Guntersville, Alabama, Jack E.Goeller, Advanced Technology and Research Corporation, Arthur H.Guenther, University of New Mexico, Daniel N.Held, Northrop Grumman Corporation, and Joseph Metcalf III, Washington, D.C. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Lee M.Hunt, Alexandria, Virginia. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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2002 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research's Air and Surface Weapons Technology Program Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1  1   INTRODUCTION   10      Context,   10      Organization of This Report,   13  2   GENERAL OBSERVATIONS   14      Overall Assessment,   14      Balancing Near- and Long-Term Needs,   15      Responding to Future Operational Requirements,   16      Recommended New Program Areas,   19  3   DISCOVERY AND INVENTION TECHNOLOGY THRUSTS   21      Ordnance,   21      Directed Energy,   24      Gun Weaponry,   27      Precision Targeting and Guidance,   29      Propulsion and Aeromechanics,   32  4   THRUSTS OF THE TIME CRITICAL STRIKE FNC PROGRAM   35      Overview,   35      Programs Reviewed,   37

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2002 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research's Air and Surface Weapons Technology Program     APPENDIXES       A Biographies of Committee Members and Staff,   47     B Agenda for the Committee's Meeting,   51     C Acronyms and Abbreviations,   54