COMBAT HYBRID POWER SYSTEM COMPONENT TECHNOLOGIES

TECHNICAL CHALLENGES AND RESEARCH PRIORITIES

Committee on Assessment of Combat Hybrid Power Systems

National Materials Advisory Board

Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu



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Combat Hybrid Power System Component Technologies: Technical Challenges and Research Priorities COMBAT HYBRID POWER SYSTEM COMPONENT TECHNOLOGIES TECHNICAL CHALLENGES AND RESEARCH PRIORITIES Committee on Assessment of Combat Hybrid Power Systems National Materials Advisory Board Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Combat Hybrid Power System Component Technologies: Technical Challenges and Research Priorities NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was conducted under Contract No. MDA972-01-D-001 from the U.S. Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Available in limited supply from: National Materials Advisory Board National Research Council 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20001 202-334-3505 nmab@nas.edu Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Combat Hybrid Power System Component Technologies: Technical Challenges and Research Priorities THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, sperpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Combat Hybrid Power System Component Technologies: Technical Challenges and Research Priorities COMMITTEE ON ASSESSMENT OF COMBAT HYBRID POWER SYSTEMS ROBERT GUENTHER, Chair, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina STEVEN A. BOGGS, University of Connecticut, Storrs MEHRDAD (MARK) EHSANI, Texas A&M University, College Station ROBERT LASSETER, University of Wisconsin, Madison BALARAMA V. MURTY, General Motors R&D Center, West Bloomfield, Michigan WILLIAM C. NUNNALLY, University of Missouri, Colombia MICHAEL RALEIGH, Advanced Power Technologies, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia National Materials Advisory Board Staff ARUL MOZHI, Study Director SHARON YEUNG DRESSEN, Program Officer (until July 2002) EMILY ANN MEYER, Research Associate

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Combat Hybrid Power System Component Technologies: Technical Challenges and Research Priorities NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD JULIA M. PHILLIPS, Chair, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico JOHN ALLISON, Ford Research Laboratories, Dearborn, Michigan FIONA DOYLE, University of California, Berkeley THOMAS EAGAR, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge GARY FISCHMAN, University of Illinois, Chicago HAMISH L. FRASER, Ohio State University, Columbus THOMAS S. HARTWICK, TRW (retired), Redmond, Washington ALLAN J. JACOBSON, University of Houston, Houston, Texas SYLVIA M. JOHNSON, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California FRANK E. KARASZ, University of Massachusetts, Amherst SHEILA F. KIA, General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, Michigan ENRIQUE LAVERNIA, University of California, Irvine HARRY A. LIPSITT, Wright State University (emeritus), Dayton, Ohio TERRY LOWE, Metallicum, LLC, Santa Fe, New Mexico ALAN G. MILLER, Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, Seattle, Washington ROBERT C. PFAHL, JR., Motorola, Schaumburg, Illinois HENRY J. RACK, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina KENNETH L. REIFSNIDER, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg PETER SCHULTZ, Heraeus Amersil, Inc. (retired), Duluth, Georgia T.S. SUDARSHAN, Materials Modification, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia JULIA WEERTMAN, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois National Materials Advisory Board Staff TONI MARECHAUX, Director

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Combat Hybrid Power System Component Technologies: Technical Challenges and Research Priorities BOARD ON MANUFACTURING AND ENGINEERING DESIGN JOSEPH G. WIRTH, Chair, Raychem Corporation (retired), Mt. Shasta, California F. PETER BOER, Tiger Scientific, Inc., Boynton Beach, Florida PAMELA A. DREW, The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington ROBERT EAGAN, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico PAUL B. GERMERAAD, Augirin Systems, Inc., Cupertino, California RICHARD L. KEGG, Milacron, Inc. (retired), Cincinnati, Ohio JAY LEE, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee JAMES MATTICE, Universal Technology Corporation, Dayton, Ohio MICHAEL F. McGRATH, Sarnoff Corporation, Arlington, Virginia MANISH MEHTA, National Center for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, Michigan JOE H. MIZE, Oklahoma State University (retired), Stillwater JAMES B. RICE, JR., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge ALFONSO VELOSA III, Gartner, Inc., Portland, Oregon JACK WHITE, Altarum, Ann Arbor, Michigan JOEL SAMUEL YUDKEN, AFL-CIO, Washington, D.C. Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design Staff TONI MARECHAUX, Director

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Combat Hybrid Power System Component Technologies: Technical Challenges and Research Priorities Acknowledgments We thank the committee members for their participation in meetings and for their efforts and dedication in the preparation of this report. We also thank the workshop speakers (listed in Appendix A) and participants, including the study sponsors and liaisons, especially Robert Rosenfeld, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA); Marilyn Freeman, formerly with DARPA; Gus Khalil and Gene Danielson, U.S. Army Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command; and George Frazier, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). We thank the National Materials Advisory Board staff, especially Arul Mozhi, study director; Sharon Yeung Dressen, program officer; and Emily Ann Meyer, research associate. This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Andrew Frank, University of California, Davis; Michael Lanagan, Pennsylvania State University; Thomas Matty, SAFT America (retired); Ian McNab, University of Texas; Wilford Smith, SAIC; Joseph Wirth, Raychem Corporation (retired); and Douglas Witherspoon, UTRON, Inc. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by William Agnew, General Motors Corporation (retired). Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Comments and suggestions can be sent via e-mail to nmab@nas.edu or by fax to (202) 334-3718. Robert Guenther, Chair Committee on Assessment of Combat Hybrid Power Systems

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Combat Hybrid Power System Component Technologies: Technical Challenges and Research Priorities Contents     Executive Summary   1 1   Background and Overview   11     Introduction,   11     Statement of Task,   11     Committee Approach,   13 2   Advanced Electric Motor Drives and Power Electronics   15     Introduction,   15     Electric Motors for Traction,   16     Materials for Electric Motors,   17     Power Devices and Inverters,   18     Bus Capacitors,   18     DC/DC Converters,   19     Integrated Thermal Management Systems,   19     Summary,   20     Bibliography,   22 3   Battery Technologies for Military Hybrid Vehicle Applications   23     Introduction,   23     Energy Density of Chemical Batteries,   23     Specific Power Characteristics of Chemical Batteries,   24     Typical Mobility Requirements of Military Vehicles for Batteries,   25     Battery Performance Improvement Techniques,   28     Summary,   29     Bibliography,   30 4   High-temperature, Wideband Gap Materials for High-power Electrical Power Conditioning   31     Introduction,   31     Silicon Carbide,   31     Other Wideband Gap, High-power Electronic Materials: GaN and AlN,   38     Summary,   39 5   High-power Switching Technologies   41     Introduction,   41     Converter Power Density,   41     Power Electronics for Pulse Energy Storage,   42     Fault-tolerant Architectures,   43     Summary,   44     Bibliography,   45

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Combat Hybrid Power System Component Technologies: Technical Challenges and Research Priorities 6   Capacitor Technology   47     Introduction,   47     Capacitor Types and Characteristics,   48     High Energy Density Capacitor State of the Art,   49     Potential for Higher Energy Densities,   50     Summary,   54 7   Computer Simulation for Storage Systems Design and Integration   57     Introduction,   57     Simulation and Modeling Needs,   58     Summary,   63     APPENDIXES     A   Agenda of the Committee’s Data-Gathering Workshop,   67 B   List of Workshop Participants,   71 C   Biographical Sketches of Committee Members,   73 D   List of Acronyms,   75

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Combat Hybrid Power System Component Technologies: Technical Challenges and Research Priorities Tables and Figures TABLES ES-1.   Advanced Electric Motor Drives and Power Electronics,   2 ES-2.   Battery Technologies,   4 ES-3.   High-temperature, Wideband Gap (WBG) Materials,   5 ES-4.   High-power Switching Technologies,   6 ES-5.   Capacitor Technologies,   7 ES-6.   Computer Simulation for the Design of Storage Systems and Components,   8 1-1.   Notional Specifications for an FCS-like Combat Vehicle Established in 1997,   13 2-1.   Technical Challenges, Performance Metrics, and Research Priorities Associated with the Application of Electric Propulsion and Power Electronics to Combat Hybrid Power Systems,   20 3-1.   Theoretical Specific Energy of Typical Existing Batteries,   23 3-2.   Expected Practical Energy Density,   24 3-3.   Status of Battery Systems for Hybrid Vehicles,   25 3-4.   Typical Operations of Military Vehicles,   26 3-5.   The Ratio of Battery Weight to Total Vehicle Weight,   28 3-6.   Technical Challenges, Performance Metrics, and Research Priorities Associated with the Application of Batteries to Combat Hybrid Power Systems,   29 4-1.   Wideband Gap Materials Figure of Merit,   38 4-2.   Microwave Performance of Wideband Gap Materials,   38 4-3.   Technical Challenges, Performance Metrics, and Research Priorities Associated with the Application of WBG Materials to Combat Hybrid Power Systems,   40 5-1.   Technical Challenges, Performance Metrics, and Research Priorities Associated with the Application of Switching Technologies to Combat Hybrid Power Systems,   44 6-1.   Technical Challenges, Performance Metrics, and Research Priorities Associated with High Energy Density Capacitors,   55 7-1.   Description of CHPSET Components,   57 7-2.   Hybrid Vehicle Hardware Components Incorporated into the Systems Integration Laboratory,   58 7-3.   Technical Challenges, Performance Metrics, and Research Priorities Associated with Computer Simulation for the Design of Storage Systems and Components,   64

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Combat Hybrid Power System Component Technologies: Technical Challenges and Research Priorities FIGURES 1-1.   Basic CHPS/FCS power flow diagram,   12 1-2.   One version of the CHPS Notional Concept Vehicle,   12 2-1.   Motor torque-speed relationship,   16 3-1.   Power requirement of typical mobility of military vehicles,   26 3-2.   Battery weight/total weight ratio versus driving range on highway at 70 mph,   27 3-3.   Battery weight/total weight ratio versus driving range while climbing hill,   27 4-1.   Comparison of SiC and silicon dielectric strength,   32 4-2.   Comparison of conduction resistance for SiC and silicon,   33 4-3.   Comparison of silicon and SiC operating voltage and conduction resistance,   34 4-4.   Silicon carbide crystal and wafer plane orientations,   35 4-5.   SiC polytype for 1120 “a” plane,   35 7-1.   Mission plan for NRMM predictions using a route analysis tool kit,   62 7-2.   NRMM basic speed prediction methodology,   63

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