Appendix C
Tables of Innovative Technology Demonstration Projects



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 349
Appendix C Tables of Innovative Technology Demonstration Projects

OCR for page 349
TABLE C-1 Summary of In Situ Oxidation (Phase II) Field Sites Site Location Area of Concern Contaminants of Concern Regulatory Driver Oxidant Scale Remedial Objectives Ability to Meet Objectives Follow-up Actions Anniston Army Depot Calhoun County, AL SWMU 12 soils in the former industrial lagoon area VOCs in soil, primarily TCE RCRA Corrective Action –Emergency Removal Action Hydrogen peroxide Pilot and full scale Reduce chemical contamination that may be contributing to exceedances of health-based concentration limits in onsite and offsite groundwater Reports claim up to 90% removal of total VOCs. Post-treatment sampling data show several areas above the 41-ppm TCE soil cleanup criteria. Additional polishing treatment in selected locations. Cherry Point UST Bogue, Carteret County, NC Vadose zone soils and groundwater in former UST area. Gasoline and diesel range organics in soil. VOCs in groundwater, primarily benzene NCDENR environmental regulations and site cleanup criteria Hydrogen peroxide Pilot scale Demonstration project to remediate soil and groundwater within the 1,000 µg/L benzene contour interval to levels acceptable to the NCDENR. Project caused pavement upheaval, underground explosions, and fire. Post-incident sampling indicates that significant contamination still remains that will most likely require further site characterization and remediation by other means. Additional site characterization and remediation alternatives will have to be evaluated. CRREL Grafton County, NH AOC 2 (Former TCE UST) & 9 (Ice Well) Vadose Zone Soils TCE and MEK in soil. Voluntary cleanup. NHDES is the primary oversight agency. Potassium permanganate Pilot and full scale Reduce soil concentrations of TCE in vadose zone source area. Pilot-scale testing is currently inconclusive. Increases in chloride concentrations in pore water during injection provide evidence that the dechlorination reaction is occurring, although pre- and post-injection soil samples indicate limited effect. Full-scale trial is currently in operation.

OCR for page 349
Site Location Area of Concern Contaminants of Concern Regulatory Driver Oxidant Scale Remedial Objectives Ability to Meet Objectives Follow-up Actions Kings Bay NSB Camden County, GA Site 11-Former sanitary landfill along the western boundary of the NSB with contaminant plume moving toward residential area VOCs in soil, primarily PCE RCRA cleanup under a GDEP consent order Hydrogen peroxide Full scale Aggressive source reduction with chemical oxidation to 100 ppb VOCs in source area In situ oxidation was able to reduce total VOCs in the primary treatment zone to below 100 ppb. The success of this project may be linked to the sandy soil with high hydraulic conductivities (30 ft/day). GDEP rescinded the consent order and allowed the shutdown of the pump and treat system. Natural attenuation to polish residuals outside the source area that are less than 100 ppb. LEAD Franklin County, PA OBP vadose zone Soils VOCs in soil, primarily TCA The OBP is located within an NPL site at LEAD; working under an IAG with USEPA/PADEP. Hydrogen peroxide Full scale Reduce soil concentrations of select VOCs below Act 2 Soil Cleanup Criteria for groundwater. In situ oxidation provided significant removals of contaminants. However, in situ oxidation did not meet cleanup objectives, and additional alternatives will have to be evaluated to achieve greater reductions. LEAD evaluating enhanced biological treatment; soil vapor extraction; hot spot excavation; and natural attenuation LEAD Franklin County, PA SE DA bedrock aquifer VOCs in groundwater, primarily TCE The entire SE Area including the DA is an NPL site. Hydrogen peroxide Pilot scale Evaluate pilot test results to determine whether ISO alone or combined with other technologies can be used for full-scale remediation Not available Not available Nellis AFB Northeast of Las Vegas, NV Site ST-44 along the flight line with a plume of TCE-impacted groundwater TCE in saturated soils and groundwater Environmental investigations undertaken through the IRP and overseen by the Nevada DEP; must comply with Nevada ARARs Ozone sparging Pilot scale Determine the feasibility of using in situ ozone sparging to reduce TCE contamination at ST-44 While in situ ozone sparging appeared to be able to reduce TCE contamination at ST-44 by varying amounts in some wells and spargers, there were increases in other wells and rebound was seen in 4 out of 5 wells and 1 out of 3 spargers. Full-scale treatment with system modifications

OCR for page 349
Site Location Area of Concern Contaminants of Concern Regulatory Driver Oxidant Scale Remedial Objectives Ability to Meet Objectives Follow-up Actions Pensacola NAS Pensacola, FL Former sludge drying beds were open surface impoundments that accepted paint wastes and listed hazardous waste VOCs in groundwater, primarily TCE State order based on monitoring data showing impact to groundwater. RCRA-regulated soils were removed and a P&T system installed. Hydrogen peroxide Full scale To significantly reduce contamination in the aquifer Groundwater results after Phase 2 indicate that in situ oxidation was successful in remediating chlorinated organics found in the treatment zone. However, the site experienced a rebound after Phase I, and the RPM expects it again after Phase 2. Performing a phased evaluation of natural attenuation as a polishing technology Shaw AFB Sumter, SC OU 4 – Former Fire Training Area No. 1. Soil and groundwater contaminated from the use of combustible liquids in the fire training exercises VOCs in soil and groundwater, primarily TCA and DCA Site under an ACO. Pilot test performed under TERC. Hydrogen peroxide Pilot scale 1. Determine if groundwater contamination at OU-4 can be treated and significantly reduced using hydrogen peroxide solution. 2. Define the radius of influence of an injection well. 3. Gather sufficient data to support the design of a full-scale remediation system. 1. Pilot test showed that groundwater can be partially treated with in situ oxidation; it remains to be seen whether significant reductions achievable. 2. Pilot test further defined the radius of influence of an injection well at the site based on the interpolation of several different field measurements. 3. Pilot test data allowed contractors to adjust chemical requirements, further define radius of influence, and estimate an approximate cost for full-scale remediation. More information is required for remediating contaminants in vadose zone and the lower portion of the aquifer, for selecting appropriate injection rates for large-scale areas, and controlling releases of VOCs to the air. The draft Pilot Test Report recommended performing an air sparging pilot test using the existing injector and monitoring well system

OCR for page 349
Site Location Area of Concern Contaminants of Concern Regulatory Driver Oxidant Scale Remedial Objectives Ability to Meet Objectives Follow-up Actions DOE Kansas City Plant Kansas City, MO Former Ponds Site with VOC contamination in vadose and saturated zone soils TCE and DCE in soil Not available Potassium permanganate Field demonstration Evaluate feasibility of degrading VOCs in situ by addition of KMnO4 using a DSM process and evaluate impact of KMnO4 addition to chemical, physical, and biological properties of the soil being treated Oxidant introduction through the DSM process resulted in significant reductions of TCE within the vertical profile of the soil columns and homogenization of the treatment region. Average reduction of TCE levels by 67% in the test cells compared favorably with the 70% treatment goal. Not discussed DOE PORTS Piketon, OH Former area X-701B holding pond used for the neutralization and settling of metal-bearing acidic wastewater and solvent-contaminated solutions TCE in groundwater Pond was closed under RCRA closure action; site agreed to collaborate with ORNL and support ISO field test at Area X-701B Potassium permanganate Full scale demonstration Field-scale treatability study of ISCOR to evaluate effectiveness in reducing sources of groundwater plumes and minimizing time pump-and-treat facilities are required to be operational In situ oxidation via injection of KMnO4 solution resulted in dramatic removal of TCE from the Gallia aquifer. However, the persistence of TCE in surrounding units will result in recontamination of the Gallia aquifer over time. Groundwater samples collected 12 weeks after the conclusion of the test suggest that the rate of contaminant rebound will be slow, and that the ISCOR test was successful in reducing the overall mass of TCE within the aquifer unit. Monitor TCE groundwater levels to determine if further action is needed.

OCR for page 349
Site Location Area of Concern Contaminants of Concern Regulatory Driver Oxidant Scale Remedial Objectives Ability to Meet Objectives Follow-up Actions DOE Savannah River Site Aiken, SC A/M Area PCE and TCE in vadose zone soils and soils below the water table A/M Area RCRA Groundwater Corrective Action; Integrated Demonstration R&D Activities Hydrogen peroxide Pilot scale Pilot-scale demonstration to evaluate the ability of Fenton’s Reagent to destroy DNAPL (TCE & PCE) at a field site and assess the efficiency of Fenton’s Reagent deployed at depth (150 ft). In situ oxidation provided significant removals of DNAPL found below the water table in the test zone. Although in situ oxidation met the pilot test objectives (verify an alternative DNAPL destruction technology), additional remediation technologies would have to be used in conjunction with in situ oxidation to meet typical aquifer protection standards. Not discussed BMC Olen Irvine, CA Site includes an operating plant that covers much of the source area TCE, PCE, and MC in vadose zone soils and below the water table Regional Water Quality Control Board Potassium permanganate Pilot and full scale Phased objectives: 1. Reduce dissolved TCE and MC levels to asymptote. 2. Turn off active remediation (vapor recovery and groundwater extraction). 3. Obtain site closure. 4. Achieve dissolved TVOC levels below 500 µg/L site-wide. The treatment met the most critical goals of: 1. reducing dissolved-phase CVOC levels (estimated at 97% reduction, to low ppb levels in the injection zone), and 2. terminating active remediation by vapor and groundwater recovery. The treatment did not meet the further objectives of: 1. site closure without longterm monitoring (partly due to the unexpected presence of MC), and 2. a site-wide average dissolved TCE concentration of < 500 µg/L. Long-term monitoring will be required as part of the monitored natural attenuation strategy for residual contaminants, particularly MC   SOURCE: ESTCP. 1999. Technology Status Report: In Situ Oxidation. http://www.cstcp.org/documents/techdocs/index.cfm (November).

OCR for page 349
TABLE C-2 Summary of Selected Steam Injection Projects for Subsurface Remediation Site Contaminant Concentration/Volume Geology Treatment System Design Removal Efficiency or Volume Comments Solvent Services, Inc. San Jose, CA VOCs and nonvolatile organic contaminants at concentrations > 1,000 ppm Silts and clays, continuous poorly sorted sand layer at bottom, 0.61 to 1.5 m 7.3-m2 area treated by 6 injection wells and 1 extraction well, 1.5m between wells, 111.6 kg/hr of steam injected for 120 hrs, then 67 kg/hr for 20 hrs Vacuum extraction: 99 kg in 40 hrs. Steam extraction: 146 kg in 140 hrs. Followed by intermittent operations. Pilot-scale demonstration Annex Terminal Port of Los Angeles, San Pedro, CA Major contaminants were TCE, PCE, chloro-benzene. Initial average concentration of 466 ppm VOCs   33-m2 area treated to 1.5-m depth by steam (200°C) and compressed air (135°C) 84.7% VOCs, 55% SVOCs. Treatment time was 1 month Detoxifier system developed by NovaTerra, Inc. AT&T New York Chlorinated solvents, TCE & 1,1,1-TCA, DNAPL (separate and dissolved aqueous phase) Tight, heterogeneous   4,500 kg of hydrocarbons recovered in 2 years Nutrients injected at 40°C, vacuum extraction of 7.8 m3/min, maximum vacuum of 41 cm Hg Yorktown Naval Shipyards Naval Special Fuel Oil, estimated 8,000 L a Upper 6 m was homogeneous fine to coarse sand, below that was interbedded sands and clays. Water table 3.8 to 4.1 m below ground. Hydraulic conduct. 2.0 to 5.2 x 10-3 cm/s 83.6 m2 area treated with five spot pattern of four injection wells and one extraction well, 9.1 m between injection wells; injected at 6.1- to 7.6-m depth, extracted from 3- to 9.1 -m depth; Injection rate of 272 kg/hr 617 L recovered. Steam injected over 2-month period Hot water may be more appropriate for this nonvolatile, viscous oil Naval Air Station Lemoore, CA JP-5, estimated 757,000 L Sands and silts with hydraulic conduct. 3.9 x 10-3 to 1.4 x 10-2 cm/s. Water table at 4.9 m 12,140-m2 area treated with two injection wells at the center, and eight vapor/groundwater extraction wells; Injection depth of 6 m Approximately 976,000 L recovered in 3 months of operation. Final vadose zone concentration of 20 to 50 ppm TPH; 20,000 ppm remains at water table Demonstration project Pinellas Plant Northeast Site, Largo, FL Volatile organic compounds including BTEX and chlorinated solvents Silty sands, water table at 1 m below around surface 1,566 m3 treated by 48 holes to a depth of 9.8 m Approximately 544 kg recovered Dual auger rotary steam stripping demonstration project SOURCE: Davis, E. L. 1998. Steam Injection for Soil and Aquifer Remediation, Ground Water Issue, EPA/540/S-97/505, January. aThe report does not contain an estimate of the amount of oil contained in the area treated by the pilot study. This estimate was made using the same assumptions made in the report to estimate the oil contained within the entire contaminated region, with an estimate of the contamination extending to a depth of 1.5 m.

OCR for page 349
TABLE C-3 Compilation of In Situ Thermal Treatment Projects Project Contaminant(s) Technology Status LLNL Gas Pad Gasoline Steam Injection Complete (115,000 lbs recovered) Visalia Pole Yard NPL Site Creosote, pentachlorophenol Steam Injection Ongoing full-scale (1 million lbs recovered in 18 months) Skokie, IL TCE 6-phase heating Full-scale cleanup completed Seattle, WA PCE 6-phase heading Full-scale cleanup completed Ft. Richardson, AK PCE 6-phase heading Full-scale cleanup completed Atlanta, GA Diesel fuel 6-phase heading Full-scale cleanup completed Portland, IN PCE, TCE In situ thermal desorption Full-scale cleanup completed Tanapag, Saipan, NMI PCBs In situ thermal desorption Full-scale cleanup completed Fuel Terminal, Eugene, OR Diesel fuel In situ thermal desorption Full-scale cleanup completed Naval Facility, Ferndale, CA PCBs In situ thermal desorption Full-scale cleanup completed Dragstrip, Glen Falls, NY PCBs In situ thermal desorption Demonstration project completed Mew, Cape Girardeau, MO PCBs In situ thermal desorption Demonstration project completed Navy BADCAT, Vallejo, CA PCBs In situ thermal desorption Demonstration project completed Lemoore NAS, CA JP-5 Steam injection Full-scale cleanup completed Petrochemical, TX Solvents 3-Phase electrical heating Sequential full-scale cleanup of hot spots NAS North Island, San Diego, CA TCE, JP-5 In situ thermal treatment Full-scale cleanup underway following successful pilot Yorktown Navy Facility, VA Fuel oil In situ steam heating Full-scale project underway. Steam in pipes used to reduce viscosity, facilitate recovery in trenches Rainbow Disposal, Huntington Beach, CA Diesel fuel Steam injection EPA SITE demonstration DESC, Whittier, AL JP-5 Steam injection Full-scale design and construction Bulk oil plant, Jacksonville, FL Motor oil Steam injection Full-scale design/startup Fall 2000 Metal recycling facility, Boston, MA Heavy machine oil In situ thermal treatment Procurement and fabrication underway Aircraft engine plant, Lynn, MA PCBs Steam injection Design completed/implementation 2001 Safety Kleen Breslau, Ontario PCBs In situ thermal treatment Pilot test

OCR for page 349
Project Contaminant(s) Technology Status DESC, San Pedro, CA Diesel fuel In situ thermal treatment Pilot test PSNS, Bremerton, WA Fuel oil In situ thermal treatment Pilot test Ft. Hood, TX JP-8 Steam injection/3-phase heat Demonstration Panama City, FL Diesel fuel Steam injection Full-scale Plating facility, Danbury, CT CVOCs Steam injection Full-scale designed and constructed DOE Savannah River, SC PCE, TCE Steam injection Contract awarded A.G. Communications, North Lake, IL Solvents Steam injection Ongoing Waukegon, IL Methylene chloride 6-phase heating Full-scale cleanup in progress Long Beach, CA PCE 6-phase heating Pilot project (awarded) Portland, OR TCE 6-phase heating Full-scale cleanup (awarded) Newark, CA EDB 6-phase heating Pilot project (awarded) Air Force Plant 4, Ft. Worth, TX Solvents 6-phase heating Pilot project underway Holyoke, MA Styrene Steam injection Ongoing Alameda NAS TCE, diesel, motor oil Steam injection Pilot project completed DOE Portsmouth, OH TCE Steam injection Pilot project completed Solvent Services, San Jose, CA Chlorinated solvents Steam injection Pilot project completed Port of Ridgefield, WA PAHs, PCP Steam injection Contract awarded Cape Canaveral, FL TCE Steam injection/oxidation Joint DOD/DOE/EPA/NASA “treat-off” Mobil Oil Petroleum RF Heating Full-scale completed Ashland Refinery, St. Paul, MN Petroleum Microwave Heating Full-scale completed Wyckoff Wood Treater NPL Site Creosote Pentachlorophenol In situ thermal treatment Signed ROD, conceptual design underway Rocky Mt. Arsenal Hex Pit Commerce City, CO Pesticides In situ thermal desorption Full-scale design/EPA SITE demonstration Pole Yard, Alhambra, CA Creosote, PAHs In situ thermal desorption Under contract N. Ryan St. Site, Lake Charles, LA PAHs, PCBs In situ thermal desorption Administrative Order on Consent Action Memorandum issued   SOURCES: (1) GWRTAC. 2000. Advances on Innovative Ground- Water Remediation Technologies and In Situ Thermal Treatment, Conference Proceedings, Boston, MA, June and (2) J. Cummings, 2001, EPA Technology Innovation Office, personal communication.

OCR for page 349