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WEAVING A NATIONAL MAP Review of the U.S. Geological Survey Concept of The National Map Committee to Review the U.S. Geological Survey Concept of The National Map Mapping Science Committee Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was sponsored by Award No. 02HQGR0114 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Geological Survey. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number: 0-309-08747-3 Library of Congress Control Number: 2003104244 Copies of this report are available from: The National Academies Press 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 Lockbox 285 800–624–6242 202–334–3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Cover: Layers of geographic information represented as a blanket (upper layer) and quilt (lower layer) covering the conterminous United States. The study committee uses the blanket and quilt metaphor to distinguish components of the USGS National Map concept. SOURCE: Susanna Baumgart, University of California, Santa Barbara. Cover designed by Van Nguyen Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts and Dr. Wm. A.Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE U.S.GEOLOGICAL SURVEY CONCEPT OF THE NATIONAL MAP KEITH C.CLARKE, Chair, University of California, Santa Barbara MICHAEL R.ARMSTRONG, City of Des Moines, Iowa DAVID J.COWEN, University of South Carolina, Columbia DONNA P.KOEPP, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts XAVIER LOPEZ, Oracle Corporation, Nashua, New Hampshire RICHARD D.MILLER, Kansas Information Technology Office, Topeka GALE W.TESELLE, USDA/NRCS (retired), Mitchellville, Maryland WALDO R.TOBLER, University of California, Santa Barbara NANCY VON MEYER, Fairview Industries, Pendleton, South Carolina National Research Council Staff PAUL M.CUTLER, Study Director EILEEN M.MCTAGUE, Research Assistant RADHIKA S.CHARI, Senior Project Assistant MOHAN SEETHARAM, Intern (Until August, 2002)
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MAPPING SCIENCE COMMITTEE DAVID J.COWEN, Chair, University of South Carolina, Columbia KATHRINE CARGO, New Orleans Geographic Information System, Louisiana WILLIAM J.CRAIG, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis SHOREH ELHAMI, Delaware County, Ohio JAMES GERINGER, State of Wyoming, Wheatland MARK MONMONIER, Syracuse University, New York JOEL MORRISON, Ohio State University, Columbus HARLAN J.ONSRUD, University of Maine, Orono C.STEPHEN SMYTH, MobileGIS, Ltd., Bellevue, Washington JAMES V.TARANIK, University of Nevada, Reno NANCY TOSTA, Ross & Associates Environmental Consulting, Ltd., Seattle, Washington REX W.TRACY, Consultant, San Diego, California A.KEITH TURNER, Colorado School of Mines, Golden National Research Council Staff PAUL M.CUTLER, Program Officer EILEEN M.MCTAGUE, Research Assistant RADHIKA S.CHARI, Senior Project Assistant
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BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES GEORGE M.HORNBERGER, Chair, University of Virginia, Charlottesville JILL BANFIELD, University of California, Berkeley STEVEN R.BOHLEN, Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Washington, D.C. VICKI J.COWART, Planned Parenthood of the Rocky Mountains, Denver, Colorado DAVID L.DILCHER, University of Florida, Gainesville ADAM M.DZIEWONSKI, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts WILLIAM L.GRAF, Arizona State University, Tempe RHEA GRAHAM, New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission, Albuquerque V.RAMA MURTHY, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis DIANNE R.NIELSON, Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Salt Lake City RAYMOND A.PRICE, Queen’s University, Ontario, Canada MARK SCHAEFER, NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia BILLIE L.TURNER II, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts THOMAS J.WILBANKS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee National Research Council Staff ANTHONY R.DE SOUZA, Director TAMARA L.DICKINSON, Senior Program Officer DAVID A.FEARY, Senior Program Officer ANNE M.LINN, Senior Program Officer PAUL M.CUTLER, Program Officer KRISTEN L.KRAPF, Program Officer KERI H.MOORE, Program Officer LISA M.VANDEMARK, Program Officer YVONNE P.FORSBERGH, Research Assistant MONICA R.LIPSCOMB, Research Assistant EILEEN M.MCTAGUE, Research Assistant JENNIFER T.ESTEP, Administrative Associate VERNA J.BOWEN, Administrative Assistant RADHIKA S.CHARI, Senior Project Assistant KAREN L.IMHOF, Senior Project Assistant SHANNON L.RUDDY, Senior Project Assistant
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TERESIA K.WILMORE, Project Assistant WINFIELD SWANSON, Editor
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Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Chaitan Baru, University of California, San Diego Donald Cooke, Geographic Data Technology, Lebanon, New Hampshire Michael Furlough, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Mary Gunnels, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. Alan Leidner, New York City Department of Information Technology and Telecommunications, New York Mark Schaefer, NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia Nancy Tosta, Ross & Associates Environmental Consulting, Seattle, Washington. Eugene Trobia, Arizona State Cartographer, Phoenix, Arizona
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Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Debra Knopman, RAND. Appointed by the National Research Council, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
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Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 7 History, 7 Current Context, 9 Highlights of the USGS Vision Document, 11 The Charge to the Committee, 15 Report Structure, 16 2 THE NEED FOR A NATIONAL MAP 19 Introduction, 19 Stakeholders and Their Needs, 19 Changing Roles, Familiar Issues, 22 Benefits and Challenges of Sharing Data, 24 Blankets and Quilts, 25 Summary, 34 3 COMPONENTS OF A NATIONAL MAP 35 Introduction, 35 A Context for The National Map, 35 Paper Maps, 40 Proposed Data Content, 41 Proposed Data Characteristics, 49
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Archiving Data, 54 Volunteers, 55 The Public Domain, 56 Summary, 58 4 IMPLEMENTATION OF A NATIONAL MAP 59 Introduction, 59 Next Steps for the USGS, 59 Challenges, 61 Roles, 62 Culture Change, 64 Research Needs, 65 Determining User Requirements, 66 Summary, 69 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 71 Introduction, 71 Overarching Conclusions, 71 The Roles of the USGS in Partnerships, 73 Ensuring Participation in and Widespread Use and Maintenance of The National Map, 75 Data Characteristics and Methods, 77 REFERENCES 81 APPENDIXES A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members 89 B Oral and Written Contributions 95 C Previous Recommendations and Observations on National Mapping Activities 97 D Selected Points Raised in Written Comments of Workshop Participants 113 E Acronyms 127