TABLE 1 Change in Annual Morbidity from Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: Prevaccine Baseline and 2001

Disease

Prevaccine Baseline Date

Average Annual Baseline Cases

2001 Cases

% Decrease

Diphtheria

1920–1922

175,885

2

100.00

Haemophilus influenzae, type b and unknown (< 5 years)

1985

20,000

183

99.20

Measles

1958–1962

503,282

108*

100.00

Mumps

1968

152,209

231

99.80

Pertussis

1922–1925

147,271

5,396

94.70

Poliomyelitis

1951–1954

16,316

0

100.00

Rubella

1966–1968

47,745

19

99.60

Tetanus

1922–1926

1,314

27

97.30

*Provisional data

SOURCE: Adapted from CDC (2002a).

adults have not received recommended vaccines, and disease outbreaks remain a threat if immunization coverage is below optimal levels. Dr. Smith pointed to Texas, where a pertussis outbreak has resulted in seven deaths.

Despite improvements in immunization coverage during the 1990s, national immunization rates for 2-year-olds and for adults aged 65 years and older have not yet reached the current public health objective of 90 percent coverage. For 2000, the National Immunization Survey (NIS) found that 76 percent of children ages 19 to 35 months had received all the vaccine doses necessary to complete the 4:3:1:3 immunization series3 (see www.cdc.gov/nip/coverage/NIS/00-01/toc-00-01.htm). Although coverage rates for many individual vaccines approach and even exceed 90 percent, the various missed doses lower the rates for a complete immunization series. The decline in the rate for the 4:3:1:3 series from 79 percent in 1998 is a source of concern, as are the persistent disparities in rates across states (see Figure 1).

3  

The 4:3:1:3 series refers to four or more doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and whole-cell or acellular pertussis vaccine (DTP or DTaP); three or more doses of poliovirus vaccine; one or more doses of any measles-containing vaccine; and three or more doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine.



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