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SUMMARY TABLE 1 Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Estimated Average Requirements for Groups food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies Carbo- Life Stage hydrate Protein Vit A Vit C Vit E Thiamin Group (g/d) (g/d) (pg/d) a (mg/d) (mg/d) b (mg/d) Infants 7-12 mo 10 Children 1-3 y 100 11 210 13 5 0.4 4-8 y 100 15 275 22 6 0.5 Males 9-13 y 100 27 445 39 9 0.7 14-18 y 100 44 630 63 12 1.0 19-30 y 100 46 625 75 12 1.0 31-50 y 100 46 625 75 12 1.0 51-70 y 100 46 625 75 12 1.0 > 70 y 100 46 625 75 12 1.0 Females 9-13 y 100 28 420 39 9 0.7 14-18 y 100 38 485 56 12 0.9 19-30 y 100 38 500 60 12 0.9 31-50 y 100 38 500 60 12 0.9 51-70 y 100 38 500 60 12 0.9 > 70y 100 38 500 60 12 0.9 Pregnancy < 18y 135 50 530 66 12 1.2 19-30 y 135 50 550 70 12 1.2 31-50 y 135 50 550 70 12 1.2 Lactation < 18y 160 60 880 96 16 1.2 19-30 y 160 60 900 100 16 1.2 31-50 y 160 60 900 100 16 1.2 continued NOTE: This table presents Estimated Average Requirements (EARs), which serve three purposes: for assessing adequacy of population intakes, for planning the adequacy of population intakes, and as the basis for calculating Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for individuals for those nutrients. EARs have not been established for vitamin D, vitamin K, pantothenic acid, biotin, choline, calcium, chromium, fluoride, manga- nese, or other nutrients not yet evaluated via the DRI process. aAs retinal activity equivalents (RAEs). 1 RAE = 1 ,ug retinal, 12 ,ug ,B-carotene, 24 ,ug oc- carotene, or 24 ,ug ,B-cryptoxanthin. The RAE for dietary provitamin A carotenoids is two-fold greater than retinal equivalents (RE), whereas the RAE for preformed vitamin A is the same as RE. 229

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SUMMARY TABLE 1 continucci Dieta~y Reference Intakes (DRIs): Estimateci Average Requirements for Groups Fooci anci Nutrition Boarci, Institute of Meclicine, National Acaclemies Ribo- Life Stage flavin Niacin Vit B6 Folate Vit B12 Copper Iodine Group (mg/d) (mg/d) c (mg/d) (pg/d) a (pg/d) (pg/d) (pg/d) Infants 7-12 mo Children 1-3 y 0.4 5 0.4 120 0.7 260 65 4-8 y 0.5 6 0.5 160 1.0 340 65 Males 9-13 y 0.8 9 0.8 250 1.5 540 73 14-18 y 1.1 12 1.1 330 2.0 685 95 19-30 y 1.1 12 1.1 320 2.0 700 95 31-50 y 1.1 12 1.1 320 2.0 700 95 51-70 y 1.1 12 1.4 320 2.0 700 95 > 70 y 1.1 12 1.4 320 2.0 700 95 Females 9-13 y 0.8 9 0.8 250 1.5 540 73 14-18 y 0.9 11 1.0 330 2.0 685 95 19-30 y 0.9 11 1.1 320 2.0 700 95 31-50 y 0.9 11 1.1 320 2.0 700 95 51-70 y 0.9 11 1.3 320 2.0 700 95 > 70 y 0.9 11 1.3 320 2.0 700 95 Pregnancy < 18y 1.2 14 1.6 520 2.2 785 160 19-30 y 1.2 14 1.6 520 2.2 800 160 31-50 y 1.2 14 1.6 520 2.2 800 160 Lactation < 18y 1.3 13 1.7 450 2.4 985 209 19-30 y 1.3 13 1.7 450 2.4 1,000 209 31-50 y 1.3 13 1.7 450 2.4 1,000 209 b As oc-tocopherol. oc-Tocopherol includes RRR oc-tocopherol, the only form of oc-toco- pherol that occurs naturally in foods, and the 2R-stereoisomeric forms of oc-tocopherol (RRR-, RSR-, RRS-, and RSSoc-tocopherol) that occur in fortif~ed foods and supple- ments. It does not include the 2S-stereoisomeric forms of oc-tocopherol (SRR-, SSR-, SRS-, and SSS oc-tocopherol), also found in fortified foods and supplements. CAs niacin equivalents (NE). 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan. dAs dietary folate equivalents (DFE) . 1 DFE = 1,ug food folate = 0.6,ug of folic acid from fortif~ed food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 ,ug of a supplement taken on an empty stomach. 230

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ekes Magnes- Molyb- Phos- Sele- Copper Iodine Iron ium denum phorus nium Zinc (pg/d) (pg/d) (mg/d) (mg/d) (pg/d) (mg/d) (pg/d) (mg/d) 6.9 2.5 260 65 3.0 65 13 380 17 2.5 340 65 4.1 110 17 405 23 4.0 540 73 5.9 200 26 1,055 35 7.0 685 95 7.7 340 33 1,055 45 8.5 700 95 6 330 34 580 45 9.4 700 95 6 350 34 580 45 9.4 700 95 6 350 34 580 45 9.4 700 95 6 350 34 580 45 9.4 540 73 5.7 200 26 1,055 35 7.0 685 95 7.9 300 33 1,055 45 7.3 700 95 8.1 255 34 580 45 6.8 700 95 8.1 265 34 580 45 6.8 700 95 5 265 34 580 45 6.8 700 95 5 265 34 580 45 6.8 785 160 23 335 40 1,055 49 10.5 800 160 22 290 40 580 49 9.5 800 160 22 300 40 580 49 9.5 985 209 7 300 35 1,055 59 10.9 ,000 209 6.5 255 36 580 59 10.4 ,000 209 6.5 265 36 580 59 10.4 SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vita- min C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin X, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001 ); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (2002). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu. Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. 231

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SUMMARY TABLE 2 Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULa), Vitamins Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies Life Stage Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin E Group (pg/d)b (mg/d) (pg/d) (mg/d)C'd Vitamin Infants 0-6 mo 600 NDf 25 ND ND 7-12 mo 600 ND 25 ND ND Children 1-3 y 600 400 50 200 ND 4-8 y 900 650 50 300 ND Males, Females 9-13 y 1,700 1,200 50 600 ND 14-18 y 2,800 1,800 50 800 ND 19-70 y 3,000 2,000 50 1,000 ND > 70 y 3,000 2,000 50 1,000 ND Pregnancy < 18 y 2,800 1,800 50 800 ND 19-50 y 3,000 2,000 50 1,000 ND Lactation < 18 y 2,800 1,800 50 800 ND 19-50 y 3,000 2,000 50 1,000 ND a UL = The maximum level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse effects. Unless otherwise specified, the UL represents total intake from food, water, and supplements. Due to lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, or carotenoids. In the absence of ULs, extra caution may be warranted in consuming levels above recom- mended intakes. b As preformed vitamin A only. c As oc-tocopherol; applies to any form of supplemental oc-tocopherol. d The ULs for vitamin E, niacin, and folate apply to synthetic forms obtained from supplements, fortified foods, or a combination of the two. e ,B-Carotene supplements are advised only to serve as a provitamin A source for indi- viduals at risk of vitamin A deficiency. 232

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.amin E Ribo- Niacin Vitamin B6 Folate ng/d)C'd Vitamin K Thiamin flavin (mg/d)d (mg/d) (pg/d)d ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 10 30 300 ND ND ND 15 40 400 ND ND ND 20 60 600 ND ND ND 30 80 800 ND ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 30 80 800 ND ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 30 80 800 ND ND ND 35 100 1,000 continued fND = Not determinable due to lack of data of adverse effects in this age group and concern with regard to lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake. SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vita- min C, Vitamine E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Vita- min A, Vitamin X, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001 ) . These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu. Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. 233

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SUMMARY TABLE 2 continued Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULa), Vitamins food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies Life Stage Vitamin Pantothenic Choline Carote- Group B12 Acid Biotin (g/d) noidse Infants 0-6 mo ND ND ND ND ND 7-12 mo ND ND ND ND ND Children 1-3 y ND ND ND 1.0 ND 4-8 y ND ND ND 1.0 ND Males, Females 9-13 y ND ND ND 2.0 ND 14-18y ND ND ND 3.0 ND 19-70 y ND ND ND 3.5 ND > 70 y ND ND ND 3.5 ND Pregnancy <18y ND ND ND 3.0 ND 19-50 y ND ND ND 3.5 ND Lactation <18y ND ND ND 3.0 ND 19-50 y ND ND ND 3.5 ND 234

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SUMMARY TABLE 3 Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULa), Elements Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies Life Stage Boron Calcium Chrom- Copper Fluoride Group Arsenicb (mg/d) (g/d) ium (Pg/d) (mg/d) Infants 0-6 mo NDf ND ND ND ND 0.7 7-12 mo ND ND ND ND ND 0.9 Children 1-3 y ND 3 2.5 ND 1,000 1.3 4-8 y ND 6 2.5 ND 3,000 2.2 Males, Females 9-13 y ND 11 2.5 ND 5,000 10 14-18y ND 17 2.5 ND 8,000 10 19-70 y ND 20 2.5 ND 10,000 10 > 70 y ND 20 2.5 ND 10,000 10 Pregnancy <18y ND 17 2.5 ND 8,000 10 19-50 y ND 20 2.5 ND 10,000 10 Lactation <18y ND 17 2.5 ND 8,000 10 19-50 y ND 20 2.5 ND 10,000 10 continued a UL = The maximum level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse effects. Unless otherwise specified, the UL represents total intake from food, water, and supplements. Due to lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for arsenic, chromium, and silicon. In the absence of ULs, extra caution may be warranted in consuming levels above recommended intakes. b Although the UL was not determined for arsenic, there is no justification for adding arsenic to food or supplements. 235

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SUMMARY TABLE 3 continued Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULa), Elements food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies Magnes- Manga- Molyb- Life Stage Iodine Iron ium nese denum Group (pg/d) (mg/d) (mg/d) c (mg/d) (pg/d) Infants 0-6 mo ND 40 ND ND ND 7-12 mo ND 40 ND ND ND Children 1-3 y 200 40 65 2 300 4-8 y 300 40 110 3 600 Males, Females 9-13 y 600 40 350 6 1,100 14-18 y 900 45 350 9 1,700 19-70 y 1,100 45 350 11 2,000 > 70 y 1,100 45 350 11 2,000 Pregnancy < 18y 900 45 350 9 1,700 19-50 y 1,100 45 350 11 2,000 Lactation < 18y 900 45 350 9 1,700 19-50 y 1,100 45 350 11 2,000 c The ULs for magnesium represent intake from a pharmacological agent only and do not include intake from food and water. d although silicon has not been shown to cause adverse effects in humans, there is no justification for adding silicon to supplements. e Although vanadium in food has not been shown to cause adverse effects in humans, there is no justification for adding vanadium to food and vanadium supplements should be used with caution. The UL is based on adverse effects in laboratory animals and this data could be used to set a UL for adults but not children and adolescents. f ND = Not determinable due to lack of data of adverse effects in this age group and concern with regard to lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake. 236

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kes Manga- Molyb- Phos- Vana- nese denum Nickel phorus Selenium dium Zinc (mg/d) (pg/d) (mg/d) (g/d) (pg/d) Silicond (mg/d) e (mg/d) ND ND ND 45 ND ND 4 ND ND ND 60 ND ND 5 300 0.2 3 90 ND ND 7 600 0.3 3 150 ND ND 12 1,100 0.6 4 280 ND ND 23 1,700 1.0 4 400 ND ND 34 2,000 1.0 4 400 ND 1.8 40 2,000 1.0 3 400 ND 1.8 40 1,700 1.0 3.5 400 ND ND 34 2,000 1.0 3.5 400 ND ND 40 1,700 1.0 4 400 ND ND 34 2,000 1.0 4 400 ND ND 40 SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vita- min C, Vitamine E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Vita- min A, Vitamin X, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001) . These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu. Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. 237