the NRC’s Committee on National Weather Service Modernization and was a member on the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate and the Committee on Earth Studies.

William Y. Arms is a professor of computer science at Cornell University. Although his background is in mathematics and operational research, his career has focused on applying computing to academic activities, particularly educational computing, computer networks, and digital libraries. He recently chaired a National Science Foundation workshop on a national digital library for undergraduate science, mathematics, engineering, and technology education and authored a section in an NRC report on the same subject. Dr. Arms is a former chair of the Association for Computing Machinery and serves as editor of D-Lib Magazine and a digital libraries and electronic publishing series by MIT Press.

William E. Easterling III is professor of geography and Earth system science and director of the Environmental Consortium and Environmental Resources Research Institute at the Pennsylvania State University. His current research focuses on modeling El Niño-Southern Oscillation effects on southeastern agriculture, social drivers of land use change in response to climate change in the Great Plains, and the use of high-resolution climate change scenarios to simulate crop yields. Dr. Easterling chaired the NRC Panel on the Human Dimensions of Seasonal-to-Interannual Climate Variability that produced the report Making Climate Forecasts Matter. He is the lead author of the chapter on agroecosystems and food security in the third assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and has edited three books related to the impact of climate change on society.

Richard S. Greenfield was the first director of the Atmospheric Policy Program of the American Meteorological Society (AMS). Before joining the staff of the AMS, he spent 25 years at the National Science Foundation, including nearly seven as director of the Division of Atmospheric Sciences. Dr. Greenfield’s primary policy interests include weather and climate influences on national priorities, national and international approaches to data exchange issues, and public-private partnerships to provide weather and climate products and services. Internationally, he served as a U.S. delegate to the World Meteorological Organization and as a member of several of its commissions, panels, and boards. He has been the recipient of numerous honors and awards.

William W. Hoover (ret.) is currently a consultant for aviation, defense, and energy matters. He is the former executive vice president of the Air Transport Association of America, where he represented the interests of the



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