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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Task Order No. 56-DGNA-1-00002, Award No. 50-DGNA-1-90024, between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Weather Service. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number 0-309-08746-5 (Book)

International Standard Book Number 0-309-50616-6 (PDF)

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 2003102143

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Cover: A perfect day of sailing. Photograph of the sailboat in the foreground by W. Robert Moore. Composite illustration and design by Van Nguyen, the National Academies Press.

Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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