centers, cell lines could be submitted to the American Type Culture Collection, and mutant mice and the means to re-derive them could be sent to the Mouse Mutant Regional Resource Center or the Jackson Laboratory. In some fields, the use of repositories is a mandatory requirement of publication. Vouchers for studies in systematic and evolutionary biology, including paleontology, are deposited in museums and similar facilities, where they are available for further study and reinterpretation. Without the deposited vouchers, it would be impossible to verify and build on the results of papers in those fields.

Distribution centers are desirable, but not every reagent or biological material can be disseminated through them. Although the community pays a premium when an author uses a commercial licensee to distribute materials, as long as the materials are provided at a reasonable cost, this method of distribution is generally acceptable. Public granting institutions should be receptive to requests for supplemental funds to support the distribution of materials in high demand. An author has an obligation to anticipate requests and make arrangements for responding to them over time, but if this proves impossible, an author should provide requestors with information on how to reconstruct the material or on how the material was obtained.

When publication-related materials are requested of an author, it is understood that the author provides them (or has placed them in a repository) for the purpose of enabling further research. That is true whether the author of a paper and the requestor of the materials are from the academic, public, private not-for-profit, or commercial (for-profit) sector. Authors have a responsibility to make published materials available to all other investigators on similar, if not identical, terms. Prospective authors should be aware that publishing implies an obligation to share patented or copyrighted materials for research purposes. Therefore, if intellectual property rights are associated with a material, a research license should be made available to investigators who request it. If an author does not have rights to distribute the material, the contact information for its original source should be supplied.

The act of publishing information related to a patented material or



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