tions, exceptions unfairly penalize the community, which would have otherwise had access to the data, information, or material being withheld. Furthermore, granting a special exception to certain categories or particular researchers is problematic for a variety of reasons, including the difficulty of deciding who qualifies for the exception. Considering that publication standards maintain quality and facilitate the work of the community in moving science forward, the committee observed that exceptions are likely to weaken the effectiveness of that process over the long term:

Universal adherence, without exception, to a principle of full disclosure and unrestricted access to data and materials will promote cooperation and prevent divisiveness in the scientific community, maintain the value and prestige of publication, and promote the progress of science.



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