Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences

Task Group on Research on the International Space Station

Space Studies Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
and
National Academy of Public Administration

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences Task Group on Research on the International Space Station Space Studies Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES and National Academy of Public Administration THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the task group responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this project was provided by Contracts NASW 96013 and 01001 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsor. Cover image obtained from NASA Web site www.nasa.gov. Image depicted is from mission STS113 (December 2, 2002). Backdropped by a blue and white Earth, this full view of the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by a crew member on board the space shuttle Endeavour following the undocking of the two spacecraft. Copies of this report are available free of charge from: Space Studies Board National Research Council 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences OTHER REPORTS OF THE SPACE STUDIES BOARD Assessment of Directions in Microgravity and Physical Sciences Research at NASA (2002) Assessment of the Usefulness and Availability of NASA’s Earth and Space Science Mission Data (2002) Review of NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise Applications Program Plan (2002) “Review of the Redesigned Space Interferometry Mission (SIM)” (2002) Life in the Universe: An Assessment of U.S. and International Programs in Astrobiology (2002) New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy (prepublication) (2002) The Sun to the Earth And Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy for Solar and Space Physics Executive Summary (2002) Safe on Mars: Precursor Measurements Necessary to Support Human Operations on the Martian Surface (2002) Satellite Observations of the Earth’s Environment: Accelerating the Transition at Research to Operations (2003) Toward a New Partnership in Remote Sensing: Government, the Private Sector, and Earth Science Research (2002) Using Remote Sensing in State and Local Government: Information for Management and Decision Making (2002) Assessment of Mars Science and Mission Priorities (prepublication) (2001) The Mission of Microgravity and Physical Sciences Research at NASA (2001) The Quarantine and Certification of Martian Samples (2001) Readiness Issues Related to Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences on the International Space Station (2001) “Scientific Assessment of the Descoped Mission Concept for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST)” (2001) Signs of Life: A Report Based on the April 2000 Workshop on Life Detection Techniques (2001) Transforming Remote Sensing Data into Information and Applications (2001) U.S. Astronomy and Astrophysics: Managing an Integrated Program (2001) Assessment of Mission Size Trade-offs for Earth and Space Science Missions (2000) Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPP and NPOESS Meteorological Satellites (2000) Future Biotechnology Research on the International Space Station (2000) Issues in the Integration of Research and Operational Satellite Systems for Climate Research: I. Science and Design (2000) Issues in the Integration of Research and Operational Satellite Systems for Climate Research: II. Implementation (2000) Microgravity Research in Support of Technologies for the Human Exploration and Development of Space and Planetary Bodies (2000) Preventing the Forward Contamination of Europa (2000) “On Continuing Assessment of Technology Development in NASA’s Office of Space Science” (2000) “On Review of Scientific Aspects of the NASA Triana Mission” (2000) “On the Space Science Enterprise Draft Strategic Plan” (2000) Review of NASA’s Biomedical Research Program (2000) Review of NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise Research Strategy for 2000-2010 (2000) The Role of Small Satellites in NASA and NOAA Earth Observation Programs (2000) Copies of these reports are available free of charge from: Space Studies Board The National Academies 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001 (202) 334-3477 ssb@nas.edu www.nationalacademies.org/ssb/ssb.html

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Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences TASK GROUP ON RESEARCH ON THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION JAMES P. BAGIAN, National Center for Patient Safety, Veterans Health Administration, Chair ADELE L. BOSKEY, Weill Medical College of Cornell University JOHN F. BRADY, California Institute of Technology JAY C. BUCKEY, JR., Dartmouth Medical School MEREDITH B. COLKET III, United Technologies Research Center HERMAN Z. CUMMINS, City College of the City of New York LYNETTE JONES, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ALAN LAWLEY, Drexel University STEVEN E. PFEIFFER, University of Connecticut Medical School RICHARD SETLOW, Brookhaven National Laboratory SSB Liaison ROBERT CLELAND, University of Washington NAPA Consultants DAVID J. PINE, National Academy of Public Administration THOMAS E. UTSMAN, National Academy of Public Administration Staff SANDRA J. GRAHAM, Study Director BRIAN DEWHURST, Research Assistant LISA TAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant (through March 9, 2002) CELESTE NAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant (after March 9, 2002)

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Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences SPACE STUDIES BOARD JOHN H. McELROY, University of Texas at Arlington (retired), Chair J. ROGER P. ANGEL, University of Arizona JAMES P. BAGIAN, Veterans Health Administration’s National Center for Patient Safety ANA P. BARROS, Harvard University RETA F. BEEBE, New Mexico State University ROGER D. BLANDFORD, California Institute of Technology JAMES L. BURCH, Southwest Research Institute RADFORD BYERLY, JR., University of Colorado HOWARD M. EINSPAHR, Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute (retired) STEVEN H. FLAJSER, Loral Space and Communications, Ltd. MICHAEL H. FREILICH, Oregon State University DON P. GIDDENS, Georgia Institute of Technology/Emory University RALPH H. JACOBSON, The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (retired) MARGARET G. KIVELSON, University of California, Los Angeles BRUCE D. MARCUS, TRW, Inc. (retired) HARRY Y. McSWEEN, JR., University of Tennessee GEORGE A. PAULIKAS, The Aerospace Corporation (retired) ANNA-LOUISE REYSENBACH, Portland State University ROALD S. SAGDEEV, University of Maryland CAROLUS J. SCHRIJVER, Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory ROBERT J. SERAFIN, National Center for Atmospheric Research MITCHELL SOGIN, Marine Biological Laboratory C. MEGAN URRY, Yale University PETER W. VOORHEES, Northwestern University J. CRAIG WHEELER, University of Texas, Austin JOSEPH K. ALEXANDER, Director

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Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences Preface This report constitutes phase II of a two-part study examining specific questions related to the utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) for research in the biological and physical sciences. In 1999, during formulation of a proposed NASA authorization bill, the House of Representatives first indicated that the National Research Council (NRC) should undertake such a study, but it did not enact a bill in that year. However, when the NASA Authorization Act of 2000 became law it contained provisions directing NASA to seek a study by the NRC and the National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA) on specific ISS utilization issues. The Space Studies Board of the NRC, in cooperation with NAPA, agreed to organize a two-part study of the status of life sciences and microgravity research on the ISS. The Space Studies Board established the ad hoc Task Group on Research on the International Space Station, with members having expertise in space life sciences and microgravity physical sciences (see Appendix M for the biographies of task group members, the SSB liaison, and NAPA consultants). The task group held its first meeting for the study in April 2001. During the first phase of the study, in response to the first two tasks of its charge, it conducted an assessment of the readiness of the U.S. scientific community to use the ISS for life sciences and microgravity research and of the relative costs and benefits of either dedicating an annual space shuttle mission to life sciences and microgravity research during assembly of the ISS or maintaining the current schedule for ISS assembly. The phase I report, Readiness Issues Related to Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences on the International Space Station (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 2001), was released to the public on September 12, 2001. In the second phase of the study, the task group addressed the remaining two tasks given to the NRC and NAPA: (3) Assess the current and projected factors that may limit the U.S. scientific community's ability to maximize the research potential of the ISS, and (4) Make recommendations for improving the community's ability to maximize the research potential of the ISS. While the design of the ISS and its experiment capabilities were relatively stable at the time this study was first requested, both were extensively altered during the course of the study as a result of ISS construction cost overruns. This turn of events brought considerable uncertainty regarding the final ISS configuration. This uncertainty increased the difficulty of the task group’s work and, more importantly, shifted the relative emphasis of the task. In language included in the House-Senate Conference Committee report on FY 02 appropriations for NASA, Congress requested that the task group add the following to its ongoing task: “compare and evaluate the research programs of the ISS which can be accomplished with a crew of three and a crew of six” and perform “an assessment of the probable cost-benefit ratios of those programs, compared with earthbound research which could be funded in lieu of research conducted on the ISS.” After discussion with NASA and congressional staff, the task group concluded that the first of the two latest requests already fell within the scope of the committee’s current task and that it would consider this question when assessing the scientific community's ability to maximize the research potential of the International Space Station. The second item, however, did not fall within the scope of the current task and could not be accomplished within the agreed-upon schedule and given expertise of the task group, so the task group did not attempt to address it in this report. As noted above, both phases of the study were conducted jointly with NAPA at the request of Congress. Coordination included joint planning for the study and agreement on allocation of

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Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences responsibilities at the beginning of the project, NAPA representation at all task group meetings, regular communication during the fact-finding stages, and general agreement on the principal conclusions of the report. Information for this study was collected from NASA briefings to the task group, research program documentation provided by NASA, interviews with representatives of the scientific user community for the ISS, European Space Agency documents, and online NASA databases and documents. The committee also examined available material from groups internal and external to NASA that had been commissioned to review various aspects of the ISS. One such group was the International Space Station (ISS) Management and Cost Evaluation Task Force, which was chartered in 2001 to conduct an independent external review and assessment of ISS cost, budget, and management. NASA also provided a range of data on its flight research programs and ISS science capabilities in response to lists of detailed questions developed by the task group.

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Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The contents of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Andreas Acrivos, City University of New York, John Buckmaster, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Richard Christensen, Stanford University, Glenn C. Hamiliton, Wright State University, Joseph Kerwin, Krug Life Sciences, Robert Moser, Canyon Consulting, Robert Recker, Creighton University, Andrew Staehelin, University of Colorado, and Joan Vernikos, Thirdage LLC. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Dan Fink, D.J. Fink Associates. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring task group and the institution.

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Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences Contents     PROLOGUE   1     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   3 1   INTRODUCTION   8      Task Description and History,   8      Changes to the ISS Configuration,   9      Report Assumptions and Organization,   10 2   IMPACT OF ISS CHANGES ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES RESEARCH   13      Introduction,   13      Materials Science,   13      Program Description,   13      Impact of ISS Changes,   14      Factors Limiting Utilization of the ISS,   15      Maximizing ISS Research Potential,   17      Combustion Science and Fire Safety,   17      Program Description,   17      Impact of ISS Changes,   18      Factors Limiting Utilization of the ISS,   20      Maximizing ISS Research Potential,   21      Fluid Physics,   22      Program Description,   22      Impact of ISS Changes,   22      Factors Limiting Utilization of the ISS,   24      Maximizing ISS Research Potential,   25      Fundamental Physics,   25      Program Description,   25      Impact of ISS Changes,   26      Factors Limiting Utilization of the ISS,   27      Maximizing ISS Research Potential,   27 3   IMPACT OF ISS CHANGES ON BIOASTRONAUTICS   29      Introduction,   29      Systems Physiology,   29      Program Description,   29      Impact of ISS Changes,   30      Factors Limiting Utilization of the ISS,   33      Maximizing ISS Research Potential,   35      Cardiopulmonary Physiology,   36       Program Description,   36      Impact of ISS Changes,   37      Factors Limiting Utilization of the ISS,   38      Maximizing ISS Research Potential,   38      Muscle and Bone Physiology,   39      Program Description,   39

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Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences      Impact of ISS Changes,   40      Factors Limiting Utilization of the ISS,   42      Maximizing ISS Research Potential,   43      Radiation Biology,   44      Program Description,   44      Impact of ISS Changes,   45      Factors Limiting Utilization of the ISS,   45      Maximizing ISS Research Potential,   46      Behavior and Performance,   46      Program Description,   46      Impact of ISS Changes,   46      Factors Limiting Utilization of the ISS,   47      Maximizing ISS Research Potential,   48 4   IMPACT OF ISS CHANGES ON FUNDAMENTAL BIOLOGY   49      Introduction,   49      Cell and Developmental Biology,   49      Program Description,   49      Impact of ISS Changes,   50      Factors Limiting Utilization of the ISS,   53      Maximizing ISS Research Potential,   53      Plant Biology,   54      Program Description,   54      Impact of ISS Changes,   55      Factors Limiting Utilization of the ISS,   56      Maximizing ISS Research Potential,   56 5   CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   58      Overview,   58      Limiting Factors,   58      Interdisciplinary Priorities Not in Place,   58      Crew Time,   58      International Partner Participation,   59      Experiment Facilities, Equipment, and Upmass,   59      Research Community Readiness,   60      Maximizing Research Potential,   60      Scientific Priorities,   60      Research Coordination,   62      Crew Time,   63      International Partners,   63      Experiment Equipment and Facilities,   64     REFERENCES   65     APPENDIXES         A   Future Investigations in Materials Science Planned for the ISS,   71     B   Planned ISS Combustion-Related Investigations Through 2006,   72     C   Future Flight Investigations in Fluid Physics Planned for the ISS,   73     D   List of ISS Fundamental Physics Experiments, 2002-2008,   75     E   Systems Physiology Experiments Planned for the ISS,   77

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Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences     F   Cardiovascular Physiology Experiments Planned for the ISS,   80     G   Future Bone and Muscle Physiology Experiments for the ISS,   81     H   Radiation Experiments Currently Planned for the ISS,   82     I   Future Investigations in Cell and Developmental Biology on the ISS,   83     J   Future Experiments in Plant Biology Currently Planned for the ISS,   84     K   Acronym List and Glossary,   85     L   Excerpt from NASA Authorization Act of FY 2001,   89     M   Short Biographies,   90

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