Appendix D
List of ISS Fundamental Physics Experiments, 2002-2008

There are currently nine fundamental physics experiments in three areas scheduled for the ISS between 2002 and 2007, and two more are under development that have yet to be scheduled (tbs). In addition, the STEP experiment (Francis Everitt, Stanford) will be conducted as a free-flyer project.

GRAVITATIONAL AND RELATIVISTIC PHYSICS

  1. Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) (2004), Samuel Ting, MIT. Because elementary particles such as the antiproton are absorbed by Earth’s atmosphere, the flux of particles arriving from outer space can only be mesaured above the atmosphere. The AMS will measure the antiproton flux for an extended time in order to quantify the antiproton flux.

  2. Superconducting Microwave Oscillator (SUMO) (2007), John Lipa, Stanford. The superconducting oscillator will provide an ultra-stable low-noise signal for the atomic clock experiments (RACE) on the ISS. It can provide new tests of Special and General Relativity and the Standard Model of Matter.

LASER COOLING AND ATOMIC PHYSICS

  1. Condensate Laboratory Aboard the Space Station (CLASS) (tbs), William Phillips, NIST. Bose-Einstein condensation can be used to produce atom lasers, which are expected to lead to a new generation of quantum technologies.

  2. Primary Atomic Reference Clock in Space (PARCS) (2005), Donald Sullivan, NIST. Atoms cooled to one-millionth of a degree in near-zero gravity can be measured for long times, providing an extremely accurate frequency measurement, e.g., an extremely precise clock. The frequency of the laser-cooled cesium clock of PARCS can be compared with clocks on Earth, providing a precise test of Einstein’s prediction of the gravitational shift.

  3. Rubidium Atomic Clock Experiment (RACE) (2007), Kurt Gibble, Pennsylvania State University. A laser-cooled atomic clock based on rubidium atomic beams is expected to be more stable than one based on cesium, allowing precision tests of the limits of relativity.

  4. Quantum Interferometric Test of the Equivalence Principle (QUITE) (was SMW-G) (tbs) Mark Kasevich, Yale. Atom wave interferometry will allow exacting tests of Einstein’s equivalence principle. Laser cooling will simultaneously cool and trap both rubidium and cesium atoms, which will then undergo free fall in space. Splitting and recombining the atom waves inside an interferometer will provide detailed tests of the equivalence principle.

LOW TEMPERATURE AND CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS

  1. Boundary Effect near the Superfluid Transition(BEST) (2007), Guenter Ahlers, University of California, Santa Barbara. Critical properties of fluids in confined geometries are modified by finite-size scaling effects, but these effects are smeared by gravity on Earth. In space, they can be studied with high resolution.

  2. Critical Dynamics in Microgravity (DYNAMX) (2005), Robert Duncan, University of New Mexico. The superfluid transition in He-4 will be studies with a small heat flux present, i.e., out of equilibrium. The resulting dynamical transition will provide a high-precision test of theories of



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Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences Appendix D List of ISS Fundamental Physics Experiments, 2002-2008 There are currently nine fundamental physics experiments in three areas scheduled for the ISS between 2002 and 2007, and two more are under development that have yet to be scheduled (tbs). In addition, the STEP experiment (Francis Everitt, Stanford) will be conducted as a free-flyer project. GRAVITATIONAL AND RELATIVISTIC PHYSICS Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) (2004), Samuel Ting, MIT. Because elementary particles such as the antiproton are absorbed by Earth’s atmosphere, the flux of particles arriving from outer space can only be mesaured above the atmosphere. The AMS will measure the antiproton flux for an extended time in order to quantify the antiproton flux. Superconducting Microwave Oscillator (SUMO) (2007), John Lipa, Stanford. The superconducting oscillator will provide an ultra-stable low-noise signal for the atomic clock experiments (RACE) on the ISS. It can provide new tests of Special and General Relativity and the Standard Model of Matter. LASER COOLING AND ATOMIC PHYSICS Condensate Laboratory Aboard the Space Station (CLASS) (tbs), William Phillips, NIST. Bose-Einstein condensation can be used to produce atom lasers, which are expected to lead to a new generation of quantum technologies. Primary Atomic Reference Clock in Space (PARCS) (2005), Donald Sullivan, NIST. Atoms cooled to one-millionth of a degree in near-zero gravity can be measured for long times, providing an extremely accurate frequency measurement, e.g., an extremely precise clock. The frequency of the laser-cooled cesium clock of PARCS can be compared with clocks on Earth, providing a precise test of Einstein’s prediction of the gravitational shift. Rubidium Atomic Clock Experiment (RACE) (2007), Kurt Gibble, Pennsylvania State University. A laser-cooled atomic clock based on rubidium atomic beams is expected to be more stable than one based on cesium, allowing precision tests of the limits of relativity. Quantum Interferometric Test of the Equivalence Principle (QUITE) (was SMW-G) (tbs) Mark Kasevich, Yale. Atom wave interferometry will allow exacting tests of Einstein’s equivalence principle. Laser cooling will simultaneously cool and trap both rubidium and cesium atoms, which will then undergo free fall in space. Splitting and recombining the atom waves inside an interferometer will provide detailed tests of the equivalence principle. LOW TEMPERATURE AND CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS Boundary Effect near the Superfluid Transition(BEST) (2007), Guenter Ahlers, University of California, Santa Barbara. Critical properties of fluids in confined geometries are modified by finite-size scaling effects, but these effects are smeared by gravity on Earth. In space, they can be studied with high resolution. Critical Dynamics in Microgravity (DYNAMX) (2005), Robert Duncan, University of New Mexico. The superfluid transition in He-4 will be studies with a small heat flux present, i.e., out of equilibrium. The resulting dynamical transition will provide a high-precision test of theories of

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Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences dynamical critical phenomena, and should exhibit the onset of macroscopic quantum order, usually masked by gravity. Microgravity Scaling Theory Experiment (MISTE) (2005), Martin Barmatz, JPL. High-precision equation of state, heat capacity, and compressibility measurements will be carried out on He-3 in the critical region. Asymptotic and crossover models can be tested much more carefully than on Earth because the usul density gradients induced by gravity will be absent on the ISS. Coexistence Curve Experiment (COEX) (2005), Inseob Hahn, JPL. This experiment is an extension of the MISTE experiment. It is designed to accurately test the scaling hypothesis and equation-of state model predictions. Heat Capacity at Constant Heat Current (CQ) (2005), David Goodstein, Caltech. This experiment, and extension of the DYNAMX experiment, will study the heat capacity of Helium just below the superfluid-normal transition. The presence of a heat-capacity anomaly cannot be studied on Earth because of the density-gradients induced by gravity. Schedule by projected year of launch 2004: AMS 2005: CQ, DYNAMX, MISTE, PARCS, COEX 2007: BEST, SUMO 2008: RACE tbs (in development, to be scheduled): CLASS, QUITE Launch schedule data from International Space Station Research Program: Implementation for the Physical Sciences, presentation by E.H. Trinh to TGRISS, March 5, 2002.