school and high-school levels. His areas of expertise are research on teaching, learning, and assessment with emphasis on understanding and application of science. He is also involved in professional development and assessment projects in South Africa, Thailand, Vietnam, Taiwan, and Australia. Much of this work has dealt with educational solutions to local and regional environmental and social problems. He co-directs two projects funded by NSF—a national study of leadership in science and mathematics education and a professional development program for middle- and high-school science teachers using findings from long-term ecological research studies. From 1998 to 2001, he was co-editor of the Journal of Research in Science Teaching. He was a member of the writing team for the Teaching Standards component of the National Science Education Standards. In 1999, Gallagher was awarded the Distinguished Service Award by the National Association for Research in Science Teaching. He also is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Gallagher earned bachelor’s and master’s degrees from Colgate University, a master’s degree from Antioch College, and an Ed.D. from Harvard University. He also engaged in a two-year post-doctoral fellowship at Stanford University.

Brian Stecher is a senior social scientist in the education program at RAND. Stecher’s research focuses on the development, implementation, quality, and impact of educational assessment and curriculum reforms. He is currently co-principal investigator for a statewide evaluation of the California Class Size Reduction program, and he received a field-initiated studies grant from the U.S. Department of Education to study the effects of class size on students’ opportunities to learn. Stecher led recent RAND studies of the effects of new state assessment systems on classroom practices in Vermont, Kentucky, and Washington State, funded by the National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards and Student Testing (CRESST). He is a member of the RAND team conducting a study for the National Science Foundation of the relationship between mathematics and science teaching reforms and student achievement. This same team recently completed a study of the use of performance-based assessments in large-scale testing programs, a study that examined the cost, technical quality, feasibility, and acceptability of performance-based assessments. In the past, Stecher has directed research to develop and validate national educational indicators and professional licensing and certification tests. He earned his B.A. cum laude in mathematics from Pomona College and his Ph.D. in education from the University of California at Los Angeles.

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