Appendix D
OVERVIEW OF THE CONTENT STANDARDS IN THE NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION STANDARDS

The following tables list the science content standards from the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996, Chapter 6). The content standards outline what students should know, understand, and be able to do in natural science.

The science as inquiry standards are described in terms of activities resulting in student development of certain abilities and in terms of student understanding of inquiry.

TABLE 6.1. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY STANDARDS

LEVELS K-4

Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry

Understanding about scientific inquiry

LEVELS 5-8

Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry

Understanding about scientific inquiry

LEVELS 9-12

Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry

Understanding about scientific inquiry

Standards for science subject matter in physical, life, and earth and space science focus on the science facts, concepts, principles, theories, and models that are important for all students to know, understand, and use.

TABLE 6.2. PHYSICAL SCIENCE STANDARDS

LEVELS K-4

Properties of objects and materials

Position and motion of objects

Light,heat, electricity, and magnetism

LEVELS 5-8

Properties and changes of properties in matter

Motions and forces

Transfer of energy

LEVELS 9-12

Structure of atoms

Structure and properties of matter

Chemical reactions

Motions and forces

Conservation of energy and increase in disorder

Interactions of energy and matter



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Appendix D OVERVIEW OF THE CONTENT STANDARDS IN THE NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION STANDARDS The following tables list the science content standards from the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996, Chapter 6). The content standards outline what students should know, understand, and be able to do in natural science. The science as inquiry standards are described in terms of activities resulting in student development of certain abilities and in terms of student understanding of inquiry. TABLE 6.1. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY STANDARDS LEVELS K-4 Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry Understanding about scientific inquiry LEVELS 5-8 Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry Understanding about scientific inquiry LEVELS 9-12 Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry Understanding about scientific inquiry Standards for science subject matter in physical, life, and earth and space science focus on the science facts, concepts, principles, theories, and models that are important for all students to know, understand, and use. TABLE 6.2. PHYSICAL SCIENCE STANDARDS LEVELS K-4 Properties of objects and materials Position and motion of objects Light,heat, electricity, and magnetism LEVELS 5-8 Properties and changes of properties in matter Motions and forces Transfer of energy LEVELS 9-12 Structure of atoms Structure and properties of matter Chemical reactions Motions and forces Conservation of energy and increase in disorder Interactions of energy and matter

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TABLE 6.3. LIFE SCIENCE STANDARDS LEVELS K-4 Characteristics of organisms Life cycles of organisms Organisms and environments LEVELS 5-8 Structure and function in living systems Reproduction and heredity Regulation and behavior Populations and ecosystems Diversity and adaptations of organisms LEVELS 9-12 The cell Molecular basis of heredity Biological evolution Interdependence of organisms Matter, energy, and organization in living systems Behavior of organisms TABLE 6.4. EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE STANDARDS LEVELS K-4 Properties of earth materials Objects in the sky Changes in earth and sky LEVELS 5-8 Structure of the earth system Earth’s history Earth in the solar system LEVELS 9-12 Energy in the earth system Geochemical cycles Origin and evolution of the earth system Origin and evolution of the universe The science and technology standards establish connections between the natural and designed worlds and provide students with opportunities to develop decision-making abilities. They are not standards for technology education; rather, these standards emphasize abilities associated with the process of design and fundamental understandings about the enterprise of science and its various linkages with technology. TABLE 6.5. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS LEVELS K-4 Abilities to distinguish between natural objects and objects made by humans Abilities of technological design Understanding about science and technology LEVELS 5-8 Abilities of technological design Understanding about science and technology LEVELS 9-12 Abilities of technological design Understanding about science and technology

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An important purpose of science education is to give students a means to understand and act on personal and social issues. The science in personal and social perspectives standards help students develop decision-making skills. TABLE 6.6. SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES LEVELS K-4 Personal health Characteristics and changes in populations Types of resources Changes in environments Science and technology in local challenges LEVELS 5-8 Personal health Populations, resources,and environments Natural hazards Risks and benefits Science and technology in society LEVELS 9-12 Personal and community health Population growth Natural resources Environmental quality Natural and human-induced hazards Science and technology in local , national, and global challenges The standards for the history and nature of science recommend the use of history in school science programs to clarify different aspects of scientific inquiry, the human aspects of science, and the role that science has played in the development of various cultures. TABLE 6.7. HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE STANDARDS LEVELS K-4 Science as a human endeavor LEVELS 5-8 Science as a human endeavor Nature of science History of science LEVELS 9-12 Science as a human endeavor Nature of scientific knowledge Historical perspectives