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Appendix E OVERVIEW OF THE CONTENT AREAS IN THE BENCHMARKS FOR SCIENCE LITERACY Benchmarks specifies how students should progress toward science literacy, recommending what they should know and be able to do by the time they reach certain grade levels…. Project 2061’s benchmarks are statements of what all students should know or be able to do in science, mathematics, and technology by the end of grades 2, 5, 8, and 12. (AAAS, 1993, pg. XI) The 857 Benchmarks are too numerous to list in this appendix. The entire set of benchmarks can be found online at http://www.project2061.org/tools/benchol/bolframe.htm or ordered through Oxford University Press. Order Department 2001 Evans Road Cary, NC 27513 Telephone: 1-800-451-7556 Oxford University Press U.S. Web Site: http://www.oup-usa.org/ The Benchmarks table of contents is provided here to illustrate the science topics encompassed by the benchmarks. The Nature of Science The Scientific World View Scientific Inquiry The Scientific Enterprise The Nature of Mathematics Patterns and Relationships Mathematics, Science, and Technology Mathematical Inquiry The Nature of Technology Technology and Science Design and Systems Issues in Technology The Physical Setting The Universe The Earth Processes That Shape the Earth The Structure of Matter Energy Transformations Motion Forces of Nature The Living Environment Diversity of Life Heredity Cells Interdependence of Life Flow of Matter and Energy Evolution of Life The Human Organism Human Identity Human Development
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Basic Functions Learning Physical Health Mental Health Human Society Cultural Effects on Behavior Group Behavior Social Change Social Trade-Offs Political and Economic Systems Social Conflict Global Interdependence The Designed World Agriculture Materials and Manufacturing Energy Sources and Use Communication Information Processing Health Technology The Mathematical World Numbers Symbolic Relationships Shapes Uncertainty Reasoning Historical Perspectives (Grades 6-12 only) Displacing the Earth from the Center of the Universe Uniting the Heavens and Earth Relating Matter & Energy and Time & Space Extending Time Moving the Continents Understanding Fire Splitting the Atom Explaining the Diversity of Life Discovering Germs Harnessing Power Common Themes Systems Models Constancy and Change Scale Habits of Mind Values and Attitudes Computation and Estimation Manipulation and Observation Communication Skills Critical-Response Skills
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