FIGURE 1-1 A framework for investigating the influence of nationally developed standards for mathematics, science, and technology education.

SOURCE: NRC (2002).

In his paper,1 Ellis distinguishes between the “intended curriculum,” the “enacted curriculum,” and the “assessed curriculum.”

The first, he explained, is “a statement of goals and standards that defines the content to be learned and the structure, sequence, and presentation of that content.” Those standards are defined by national guidelines such as the NSES, by state standards and curriculum frameworks, by local standards and curriculum frameworks, and by publishers of instructional materials.

The NSES, he pointed out, target the intended curriculum as their primary sphere of influence.

The intended curriculum, he asserted, is interpreted by teachers, administrators, parents, and students to create the enacted curriculum— or what actually is taught in the classroom. The assessed curriculum comprises that portion of


The full research review by James D. Ellis is in Chapter 2 of this publication.

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