REFERENCES

Beck, H.L. Exposure Rate Conversion Factors for Radionuclides Deposited on the Ground. US Dept. of Energy Report EML-378. NTIS, Springfield, VA, 1980.

Beck, H.L. and Bennett, B.G. Historical Overview of Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing and Estimates of Fallout in the Continental United States. Health Phys. 82, 591–608. 2002.

Bennett, B.G. Environmental Aspects of Americium. USDOE Report EML-348. Environmental Measurements Laboratory, New York, NY, 1978.


Carter, M.W. and Moghissi, A.A. Three Decades of Nuclear Testing. Health Phys. 33:55–71, 1977.

Church, B.W., Wheeler, D.L., Campbell, C.M., Nutley, R.V., and Anspaugh, L.R. Overview of the Department of Energy’s Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project (ORERP). Health Phys., 59, 503–510. 1990.


Dobyns, B.M., Sheline, G.E., Workman, J.B., Tompkins, E.A., McConahey, W.M., and Becker, D.V. Malignant and Benign Neoplasms of the Thyroid in Patients Treated for Hypothyroidism: a Report of the Cooperative Thyrotoxicosis Therapy Follow-Up Study. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 38, 976–998. 1974.


Eckhoff, N.D., Shultis, J.K., Clack, R.W., Ramer, E.R. Correlation of Leukemia Mortality Rates with Altitude in the United States. Health Phys. 27(4), 377–380. 1974.


Franceschi, S., Preston-Martin, S., Dal Maso, L., Negri, E., La Vecchia, C., Mack, W.J., McTiernan, A., Kolonel, L., Mark, S.D., Mabuchi, K., Jin, F., Wingren, G., Galanti, M.R., Hallquist, A., Glattre, E., Lund, E., Levi, F., Linos, D., and Ron, E. A Pooled Analysis of Case-Control Studies of Thyroid Cancer. IV. Benign Thyroid Diseases. Cancer Caus. Cont. 10, 583–595. 1999.


Gilbert, E.S., Tarone, R., Bouville, A., and Ron, E. Thyroid Cancer Rates and 131I Doses from Nevada Atmospheric Nuclear Bomb Tests. J Natl Cancer Inst. 90(21):1654–1660. 1998.


Hicks, H.G. Results of Calculations of External Radiation Exposure Rates from Fallout and the Related Radionuclide Composition. Livermore, CA: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. UCRL-53152, parts 1–8, 1981.

Hoel, D.G. and Li, P. Threshold Models in Radiation Carcinogenesis. Health Phys. 75(3), 241– 298. 1998.


IOM-NRC (Institute of Medicine-National Research Council). Exposure of the American People to Iodine-131 from Nevada Nuclear-Bomb Tests. Review and Assessment of the Public Health Implications of the National Cancer Institute’s “Estimated Exposures and Thyroid Doses Received by the American People from Iodine-131 in the Fallout Following Nevada Atmospheric Nuclear Bomb Tests.” Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 1999.

ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP Publication 60, Annals of the ICRP 21, Pergamon Press, Elmsford, NY. 1991.


Jacobson, A.P., Plato, P.A., Frigerio, N.A. The Role of Natural Radiations in Human Leukemogenesis. Am. J. Public Health 66(1), 31–37. 1976.



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Exposure of the American Population to Radioactive Fallout from Nuclear Weapons Tests REFERENCES Beck, H.L. Exposure Rate Conversion Factors for Radionuclides Deposited on the Ground. US Dept. of Energy Report EML-378. NTIS, Springfield, VA, 1980. Beck, H.L. and Bennett, B.G. Historical Overview of Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing and Estimates of Fallout in the Continental United States. Health Phys. 82, 591–608. 2002. Bennett, B.G. Environmental Aspects of Americium. USDOE Report EML-348. Environmental Measurements Laboratory, New York, NY, 1978. Carter, M.W. and Moghissi, A.A. Three Decades of Nuclear Testing. Health Phys. 33:55–71, 1977. Church, B.W., Wheeler, D.L., Campbell, C.M., Nutley, R.V., and Anspaugh, L.R. Overview of the Department of Energy’s Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project (ORERP). Health Phys., 59, 503–510. 1990. Dobyns, B.M., Sheline, G.E., Workman, J.B., Tompkins, E.A., McConahey, W.M., and Becker, D.V. Malignant and Benign Neoplasms of the Thyroid in Patients Treated for Hypothyroidism: a Report of the Cooperative Thyrotoxicosis Therapy Follow-Up Study. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 38, 976–998. 1974. Eckhoff, N.D., Shultis, J.K., Clack, R.W., Ramer, E.R. Correlation of Leukemia Mortality Rates with Altitude in the United States. Health Phys. 27(4), 377–380. 1974. Franceschi, S., Preston-Martin, S., Dal Maso, L., Negri, E., La Vecchia, C., Mack, W.J., McTiernan, A., Kolonel, L., Mark, S.D., Mabuchi, K., Jin, F., Wingren, G., Galanti, M.R., Hallquist, A., Glattre, E., Lund, E., Levi, F., Linos, D., and Ron, E. A Pooled Analysis of Case-Control Studies of Thyroid Cancer. IV. Benign Thyroid Diseases. Cancer Caus. Cont. 10, 583–595. 1999. Gilbert, E.S., Tarone, R., Bouville, A., and Ron, E. Thyroid Cancer Rates and 131I Doses from Nevada Atmospheric Nuclear Bomb Tests. J Natl Cancer Inst. 90(21):1654–1660. 1998. Hicks, H.G. Results of Calculations of External Radiation Exposure Rates from Fallout and the Related Radionuclide Composition. Livermore, CA: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. UCRL-53152, parts 1–8, 1981. Hoel, D.G. and Li, P. Threshold Models in Radiation Carcinogenesis. Health Phys. 75(3), 241– 298. 1998. IOM-NRC (Institute of Medicine-National Research Council). Exposure of the American People to Iodine-131 from Nevada Nuclear-Bomb Tests. Review and Assessment of the Public Health Implications of the National Cancer Institute’s “Estimated Exposures and Thyroid Doses Received by the American People from Iodine-131 in the Fallout Following Nevada Atmospheric Nuclear Bomb Tests.” Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 1999. ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP Publication 60, Annals of the ICRP 21, Pergamon Press, Elmsford, NY. 1991. Jacobson, A.P., Plato, P.A., Frigerio, N.A. The Role of Natural Radiations in Human Leukemogenesis. Am. J. Public Health 66(1), 31–37. 1976.

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Exposure of the American Population to Radioactive Fallout from Nuclear Weapons Tests Kerber, R., Till, J.E., Simon, S.L., Lyon, J.L., Thomas, D.C., Preston-Martin, S., Rallison, M. L., Lloyd, R.D., Stevens, W. A Cohort Study of Thyroid Disease in Relation to Fallout from Nuclear Weapons Testing. JAMA 270, 2076–2082. 1993. Lyon, J., Klauber, M.R., Gardner, J., and Udall, K. Childhood Leukemias Associated with Fallout from Nuclear Testing. New Engl. J. Med. 300, 397–402. 1979. Maxon, H.R., Saenger, E.L., Thomas, S.R., Buncher, C.R., Kereiakes, J.G., Shafer, M.L., and McLaughlin, C.A. Clinically Important Radiation-Associated Thyroid Disease. A Controlled Study. JAMA 244, 1802–1805. 1980. Nagataki, S., Shibata, Y., Inoue, S., Yokoyama, N., Izumi, M., and Shimaoka, K. Thyroid Diseases among Atomic Bomb Survivors in Nagasaki. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 364–370. 1994. NCI (National Cancer Institute). Estimated Exposures and Thyroid Doses Received by the American People from Iodine-131 in the Fallout Following Nevada Atmospheric Nuclear Bomb Tests. National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC. 1997. NCRP (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements). Principles and Application of Collective Dose in Radiation Protection. NCRP Report No. 121, NCRP, Bethesda, MD. 1995. NCRP (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements). Recommended Screening Limits for Contaminated Surface Soil and Review of Factors Relevant to Site-Specific Studies. NCRP Report No. 129, NCRP, Bethesda, MD. 1999. Ng, Y.C., Anspaugh, L.R., and Cederwall, R.T. ORERP (Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project) Internal Dose Estimates for Individuals. Health Phys. 59, 693–710. 1990. Pierce, D.A., Shimizu, Y., Preston, D.L., Vaeth, M., and Mabuchi, K. Studies of the Mortality of Atomic Bomb Survivors. Report 12, Part I. Cancer: 1950–1990. Radiat. Res. 146, 1– 27. 1996. Pillai, N.K., Thangavelu, M., and Ramalingaswami, V. Nodular Lesions of the Thyroid in an Area of High Background Radiation in Coastal Kerala, India. Indian J. Med. Res. 64, 537–544. 1976. Pottern, L.M., Kaplan, M.M., Larsen, P.R., Silva, J.E., Koenig, R.J., Lubin, J.H., Stovall, M., and Boice, J.D. Thyroid Nodularity after Childhood Irradiation for Lymphoid Hyperplasia: A Comparison of Questionnaire and Clinical Findings. J. Clin. Epidemiol. 43, 449–460. 1990. Pottern, L.M., Stone, B.J., Day, N.E., Pickle, L.W., and Fraumeni, J.F. Thyroid Cancer in Connecticut, 1935–1975: An Analysis by Cell Type. Am. J. Epidemiol. 112, 764–774. 1980. Preston D.L., Kusumi S., Tomonaga M., Izumi, S., Ron, E., Kuramoto, A., Kamada, N., Dohy, H., Matsuo, T., Nonaka, H., Thompson, D.E., Soda, M., and Mabuchi, K. Cancer Incidence in Atomic Bomb Survivors. Part III. Leukemia, Lymphoma, and Multiple Myeloma . Radiat. Res., 137, S68–S97. 1994. Rallison, M.L., Lotz, T.M., Bishop, M., Divine, W., Haywood, K., Lyon, J.L., and Stevens, W. Cohort Study of Thyroid Diseases near the Nevada Test Site: A Preliminary Report. Health Phys. 59, 739–746. 1990. Roesch, W.G. (Ed.) US-Japan Joint Reassessment of Atomic Bomb Radiation Dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Final Report. Volume 1. Hiroshima, Japan: Radiation Effects Research Foundation. 1987.

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Exposure of the American Population to Radioactive Fallout from Nuclear Weapons Tests Ron, E., Modan, B., Preston, D., Alfandary, E., Stovall, M., and Boice, J.D. Thyroid Neoplasia Following Low-Dose Radiation in Childhood. Radiat. Res. 120, 516–531. 1989. Royce, P.C., MacKay, B.R., and DiSabella, P.M. Value of Postirradiation Screening for Thyroid Nodules. A Controlled Study of Recalled Patients. JAMA 242, 2675–2678. 1979. Shore, R.E., Hildreth, N., Dvoretsky, P., Pasternack, B., and Andresen, E. Benign Thyroid Adenomas Among Persons x-Irradiated in Infancy for Enlarged Thymus Glands. Radiat. Res. 134, 217–223. 1993. Shore, R.E. and Xue, X. Comparative Thyroid Cancer Risk of Childhood and Adult Radiation Exposure and Estimation of Lifetime Risk. Radiation and Thyroid Cancer. Eds. D. Thomas, A.Karaoglou, and E.D.Williams. Singapore, World Scientific Publishing, pp. 491–498. 1999. Stevens, W., Thomas, D.C., Lyon, J.L., Till, J.E., Kerber, R.A., Simon, S.L., Lloyd, R.D., Elghany, N.A., and Preston-Martin, S. Leukemia in Utah and Radioactive Fallout from the Nevada Test Site: A Case-Control Study. JAMA 264:586–591. 1990. UNSCEAR. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Report to the General Assembly. United Nations Report E.94.IX.2. United Nations, New York, NY. 1988. UNSCEAR. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Report to the General Assembly with annexes. United Nations, New York, NY. 1993. UNSCEAR United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Report to the General Assembly. United Nations, New York. 2000. Wang, Z., Boice, J.D.Jr., Wei, L.X., Beebe, G.W., Zha, Y.R., Kaplan, M.M., Tao, Z.F., Maxon, H.R.3rd, Zhang, S.Z., Schneider, A.B. Thyroid Nodularity and Chromosome Aberrations among Women in Areas of High Background Radiation in China. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 82, 478–485. 1990. Williams, D. Cancer after Nuclear Fallout: Lessons from the Chernobyl Accident. Nature Rev. Cancer 2:543–549. 2002.