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Assessment of Directions in Microgravity and Physical Sciences Research at NASA Committee on Microgravity Research Space Stuclies Boarcl Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this project was provided by Contract NASW 01001 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsor. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08639-6 (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-50848-7 (PDF) Cover design by Penny Margolskee. Description of elements in cover design: Upper left forced flow flame spread in microgravity; upper rightphase distribu- tion in alloy solidified in space; center left interface configuration experiment; center bone tissue grown on bioactive glass; lower leftelectromagnetic force distribution and fluid flows in molten alloy in microgravity; center bottom flight experi- ment on flame balls; lower right simulation of atmospheric flows for comparison to spherical fluid flows in microgravity. A dendrite crystal appears on the spine and background, and the equations illustrate fundamental theories of dendritic growth processes. Images courtesy of NASA and individual investigators. Copies of this report are available free of charge from: Space Studies Board The National Academies 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Stiente, Engineering, and Medirine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad commu- nity of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Acad- emies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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OTHER REPORTS OF THE SPACE STUDIES BOARD Satellite Observations of the Earth's Environment: Accelerating the Transition from Research to Operations (2003) Assessment of the Usefulness and Availability of NASA's Earth and Space Mission Data (2002) Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences (prepublication) (2002) Life in the Universe: An Assessment of U.S. and International Programs in Astrobiology (2002) New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy (prepublication) (2002) Review of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise Applications Program Plan (2002) "Review of the Redesigned Space Interferometry Mission (SIM)" (2002) Safe on Mars: Precursor Measurements Necessary to Support Human Operations on the Martian Surface (2002) The Sun to the Earth and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics (2002) Toward New Partnerships in Remote Sensing: Government, the Private Sector, and Earth Science Research (2002) Using Remote Sensing in State and Local Government: Information for Management and Decision Making (2002) Assessment of Mars Science and Mission Priorities (2001) The Mission of Microgravity and Physical Sciences Research at NASA (2001) The Quarantine and Certification of Martian Samples (2001) Readiness Issues Related to Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences on the International Space Station (2001) "Scientific Assessment of the Descoped Mission Concept for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST)" (2001) Signs of Life: A Report Based on the April 2000 Workshop on Life Detection Techniques (2001) Transforming Remote Sensing Data into Information and Applications (2001) U.S. Astronomy and Astrophysics: Managing an Integrated Program (2001) Assessment of Mission Size Trade-offs for Earth and Space Science Missions (2000) Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPP and NPOESS Meteorological Satellites (2000) Future Biotechnology Research on the International Space Station (2000) Issues in the Integration of Research and Operational Satellite Systems for Climate Research: I. Science and Design (2000) Issues in the Integration of Research and Operational Satellite Systems for Climate Research: II. Implementation (2000) Microgravity Research in Support of Technologies for the Human Exploration and Development of Space and Plan- etary Bodies (2000) Preventing the Forward Contamination of Europa (2000) "On Continuing Assessment of Technology Development in NASA's Office of Space Science" (2000) "On Review of Scientific Aspects of the NASA Triana Mission" (2000) "On the Space Science Enterprise Draft Strategic Plan" (2000) Review of NASA's Biomedical Research Program (2000) Review of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise Research Strategy for 2000-2010 (2000) The Role of Small Satellites in NASA and NOAA Earth Observation Programs (2000) Copies of these reports are available free of charge from: Space Studies Board The National Academies 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001 (202) 334-3477 ssb@nas.edu www.nationalacademies.org/ssb/ssb.html NOTE: Listed according to year of approval for release. . TV

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COMMITTEE ON MICROGRAVITY RESEARCH PETER W. VOORHEES, Northwestern University, Chair J. IWAN ALEXANDER, Case Western Reserve University CRISTINA H. AMON, Carnegie Mellon University HOWARD R. BAUM, National Institute of Standards and Technology JOHN L. BRASH, McMaster University MOSES H.W. CHAN, Pennsylvania State University JAYAVANT P. GORE, Purdue University JOHN L. HALL, University of Colorado RICHARD H. HOPKINS, Hopkins, Inc. MICHAEL JAFFE, Medical Device Concept Laboratory BERNARD KEAR, Rutgers University JAN MILLER, University of Utah G.P. PETERSON, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute PETER STAUDHAMMER, TRW, Inc. VIOLA VOGEL, University of Washington, Seattle SANDRA J. GRAHAM, Study Director LISA TAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant (through March 2002) CELESTE NAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant (after March 2002) v

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SPACE STUDIES BOARD JOHN H. McELROY, University of Texas at Arlington (retired), Chair J. ROGER P. ANGEL, University of Arizona JAMES P. BAGIAN, Veterans Health Administration's National Center for Patient Safety ANA P. BARROS, Harvard University RETA F. BEEBE, New Mexico State University ROGER D. BLANDFORD, California Institute of Technology JAMES L. BURCH, Southwest Research Institute RADFORD BYERLY, JR., University of Colorado HOWARD M. EINSPAHR, Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute (retired) STEVEN H. FLAJSER, Loral Space and Communications, Ltd. MICHAEL H. FREILICH, Oregon State University DON P. GIDDENS, Georgia Institute of Technology/Emory University RALPH H. JACOBSON, The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (retired) MARGARET G. KIVELS ON, University of California, Los Angeles BRUCE D. MARCUS, TRW, Inc. (retired) HARRY Y. McSWEEN, JR., University of Tennessee GEORGE A. PAULIKAS, The Aerospace Corporation (retired) ANNA-LOUISE REYSENBACH, Portland State University ROALD S. SAGDEEV, University of Maryland CAROLUS J. SCHRIJVER, Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory ROBERT J. SERAFIN, National Center for Atmospheric Research MITCHELL SOGIN, Marine Biological Laboratory C. MEGAN URRY, Yale University PETER W. VOORHEES, Northwestern University J. CRAIG WHEELER, University of Texas, Austin JOSEPH K. ALEXANDER, Director vi

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Preface In October of 2000 NASA's Microgravity Research Division was reorganized as part of the reorga- nization of the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications. As a result, the Microgravity division now known as the Physical Sciences Division took on the responsibility for a broader range of research for NASA. As part of these responsibilities the division was expected to extend its programs in biotechnology and the physical and engineering sciences beyond the current focus on experiments for the International Space Station and to establish interdisciplinary research efforts in the areas of nanoscience, biomolecular physics and chemistry, and exploration research. The division was also tasked to contribute to the understanding of gravity-related physical phenomena in biological systems, working in concert with the Fundamental Space Biology Division and the Biomedical and Human Support Research Division. In general, the new division was expected to carry out (1) fundamental Microgravity research, (2) Microgravity research to support the development of exploration technolo- gies, and (3) research across a range of other physical science disciplines to address specific NASA needs. Research in this third category might or might not be gravity related but was intended to draw on the unique knowledge base already available in the Microgravity program. Although the former Microgravity division's role had been expanded beyond the scientific examina- tion of gravity-related phenomena, its new role within NASA was not yet fully defined, and the addi- tional resources available for new investigations were expected to be limited. There was a need, therefore, for a new charter to provide focus for the division's efforts, as well as a careful targeting of topics within the newly added research areas. NASA, therefore, requested that the Committee on Microgravity Research carry out a two-phase study containing the following elements: Phase I. As part of a preliminary study the committee was asked to develop an overall unifying theme, or "mission statement," for NASA's program in Microgravity and physical sciences. This theme would encompass the expanded range of research that the program will undertake and would provide vii

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. . . vile PREFACE NASA with broad scientific guidelines for determining whether specific research questions fall within the new program's purview. As part of this effort the committee would consider the appropriate role of the microgravity and physical sciences program with respect to other programs within NASA, such as the Human Exploration and Development of Space enterprise. The committee would also identify, in general terms, the research opportunities in the newly added discipline areas that could appropriately be pursued by the program. Phase II. During the second phase of the study the committee would identify more specific topics within the new discipline areas on which the division could most profitably focus. In doing this the committee would consider what special capabilities and knowledge exist in the current program that could be applied to the new disciplines being added to the program. The committee would also assess the current status of the division' s research program and attempt to prioritize future research directions, including both current and new disciplines. The phase I report was published in December of 2001. The results of the phase II study were released in prepublication form in November of 2002. This, the final edited text, supersedes all previous versions of this report.

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the delibera- tive process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Jerry Bernholc, North Carolina State University, Carol A. Handwerker, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Donald Ingber, Children's Hospital, Boston, Daniel D. Joseph, University of Minnesota, Robert Langer, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Carlo D. Montemagno, University of California, Los Angeles, and William A. Sirignano, University of California, Irvine. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Rainer Weiss, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW References, 14 FLUID PHYSICS RESEARCH PROGRAM Introduction and Background, 15 Fluid Physics Research: Selected Examples, 16 Impact of the Fluid Physics Research Program, 19 Future Directions in Fluid Physics Research, 21 References, 25 3 COMBUSTION RESEARCH PROGRAM Introduction, 28 Impact of NASA's Combustion Research, 31 Future Directions in Combustion Research, 34 References, 38 4 FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS RESEARCH PROGRAM Introduction, 40 Impact of NASA's Research in Fundamental Physics, 43 Future Directions in Fundamental Physics, 46 References, 49 xi 1 12 15 28 40

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. . xt! MATERIALS SCIENCE RESEARCH PROGRAM Introduction, 50 Impact of NASA's Materials Research, 51 Future Directions in Materials Research, 56 References, 59 6 BIOTECHNOLOGY Introduction, 61 Reference, 61 7 EMERGING AREAS Introduction, 62 Nanoscale Materials, 64 Integrated Nanoscale Devices, 68 Molecular and Cellular Biophysics, 72 References, 77 8 RESEARCH PRIORITIES Introduction, 83 Research Priorities in Emerging Areas, 84 Microgravity Research Priorities, 85 Peer Review, 89 References, 89 APPENDIXES CONTENTS 50 61 62 83 A Future Biotechnology Research on the International Space Station, Executive Summary 93 B Letter of Request from NASA C Glossary and Acronyms D Committee Biographies 102 104 106