Regional or national coordination of prevention and control programs is critical for effectively addressing these challenges. The responsibility for initiating, coordinating, and funding regional or national animal health programs can rest on government or industry, or on a partnership between the two. Existing programs rely on varying combinations of entities, and they have emphasized the importance of a coordinated response, regardless of which agency has primary responsibility for the program. There is consistent recognition that the involvement of producers is critical to program success. An integral education component that leads to on-farm risk assessment and development of herd management plan is essential for success. Some programs rely on market-based enrollment incentives and disincentives, but other ways to engage producers also have been developed—subsidies for testing and indemnification, for example. Another possibility for promoting producer involvement is through the incorporation of Best Management Practices for a wider range of fecal pathogens, but this concept has not been incorporated into current programs. Additional research on JD and control principles and practices, and the promotion of scientifically sound practices—such as the use of likelihood ratios for interpreting ELISA results—also are important elements that are not considered in some current programs.

Regulatory elements—restricting animal movement from test-positive herds, requiring laboratory proficiency testing, and program audits with review and correction mechanisms—have been introduced to bolster the effectiveness of JD control and eradication programs. Clearly, another effective step toward eradication will be to gradually make compliance mandatory. Although there is no current mandatory national JD control or eradication program, federal authorities have one additional but limited tool to control the spread of JD: there are regulations that control interstate transport of clinically affected animals. Historically, the federal government has mandated that animals and animal products that are transported from one state to another must be accompanied by a certificate of veterinary inspection identifying the animals, attesting to animal health, and documenting relevant diagnostic test results. The federal government establishes minimum animal health requirements for interstate movement, including the requirement that animals be certified by a federally recognized veterinarian as free of any visible signs of infectious or communicable disease. This is of little benefit in controlling the spread of JD however, because most Map-infected animals are subclinically affected. Cachectic animals or animals that exhibit clinical diarrheal disease would not be certifiable for interstate movement, except directly to slaughter. Individual states require additional tests or certification regarding specific diseases. In 2000, the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Veterinary Service promulgated rules that prohibit the interstate movement of animals known to be test positive to an officially recognized JD test, unless the animals are moving directly to slaughter, however, testing of those animals prior to movement is not required.



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