Bridget K. B. Avila

Board on Life Sciences

Division on Earth and Life Studies


Washington, D.C.

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the planning group responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by agreement DUE-0126403 between the National Academies and the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08871-2 (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-50622-0 (PDF) Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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PLANNING GROUP FOR THE WORKSHOP ON INTEGRATING EDUCATION IN BIOCOMPLEXITY RESEARCH LOUIS GROSS (Chair), University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee CAROL BREWER, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana DIANE EBERT-MAY, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan DAVID MOGK, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana JOAN B. ROSE, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan Staff KERRY A. BRENNER, Study Director, Board on Life Sciences JAY B. LABOV, Deputy Director, Center for Education VALERIE GUTMANN, Project Assistant, Board on Life Sciences NORMAN GROSSBLATT, Senior Editor, Division on Earth and Life Studies

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BOARD ON LIFE SCIENCES COREY S. GOODMAN (Chair), Renovis, Inc., San Francisco, California R. ALTA CHARO, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Madison, Wisconsin JOANNE CHORY, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California JEFFREY DANGL, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina PAUL EHRLICH, Stanford University, Stanford, California DAVID J. GALAS, Keck Graduate Institute of Applied Life Science, Claremont, California BARBARA GASTEL, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas JAMES M. GENTILE, Hope College, Holland, Michigan LINDA E. GREER, Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, D.C. ED HARLOW, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts KENNETH KELLER, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota GREGORY A. PETSKO, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts STUART L. PIMM, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina JOAN B. ROSE, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan GERALD M. RUBIN, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland BARBARA A. SCHAAL, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri RAYMOND L. WHITE, University of California, Emeryville, California Staff FRANCES E. SHARPLES, Director ROBIN A. SCHOEN, Senior Program Officer KERRY A. BRENNER, Program Officer MARILEE K. SHELTON-DAVENPORT, Program Officer EVONNE P.Y. TANG, Program Officer ROBERT T. YUAN, Program Officer BRIDGET K.B. AVILA, Senior Project Assistant LYNN CARLETON, Project Assistant DENISE GROSSHANS, Senior Project Assistant BHAVIT SHETH, Project Assistant SETH STRONGIN, Project Assistant

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Preface In recent years, the National Science Foundation (NSF) has been work ing to develop closer links between the funding of scientific research and increasing public understanding of science. Its efforts to improve public understanding of science have focused on schools, colleges, and universities but have included support for museums, aquariums, and other programs. Those efforts are designed to prepare future scientists and educators, as well as to inform the public about how science affects society. One mechanism that NSF is using to connect education and outreach efforts to scientific research is the addition of “Criterion 2” (see below) to NSF grant proposals ( Criterion 1: What is the intellectual merit of the proposed activity? Criterion 2: What are the broader impacts of the proposed activity? NSF has asked that grant writers consider the following questions, related to Criterion 2, as they prepare their proposals. What are the broader impacts of the proposed activity? How well does the activity advance discovery and understanding while promoting teaching, training and learning?” How well does the proposed activity broaden the participation of underrepresented groups (for example, ethnic minorities)?” To what extent will it enhance the infrastructure for research and education, such as facilities, instrumentation, networks, and partnerships?

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Will the results be disseminated broadly to enhance scientific and technologic understanding? What are the expected benefits of the activity to society? Those charged with reviewing grant proposals are asked to consider the impact and feasibility of proposed activities in making funding decisions. To satisfy Criterion 2, most research grant proposals now choose to describe planned education or outreach activities and how they are related to the proposed research. These activities may involve formal education in schools, colleges, and universities; outreach via public seminars and journalism; or activities in museums and aquariums. NSF’s Biocomplexity in the Environment initiative has been one of the few programs to require that applicants explicitly include an education or outreach component. This initiative has already gone through three funding cycles. Reviews of grant proposals and progress reports showed that many of the early education and outreach projects had not been as carefully planned as the research proposed. Many were too ambitious given the time and expertise available, others were limited in scope and would impact only a few students. NSF concluded that the proposals might improve if grant applicants became more familiar with existing high-quality projects in education and outreach. Outreach is no easy task, but successful models can make the goal of designing new programs much easier and those who are aware of the models are more likely to avoid the common pitfalls. It therefore asked the National Research Council to organize a Workshop on Integrating Education in Biocomplexity Research to bring together scientists with biocomplexity-related grants and scientists involved in designing, managing, or evaluating education and outreach activities. The workshop was held on April 15-16, 2002. A planning group arranged the workshop, identified topics and speakers, and developed the agenda but did not participate in the writing of this summary. The author of the summary is Bridget K.B. Avila, who was not a member of the planning group. This summary was prepared to synthesize the ideas that emerged from the gathering and to provide additional guidance to scientists on communicating the broader context of their work to students, teachers, and the general public.

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Acknowledgments This work shop summary was enhanced by the contributions of many individuals who graciously offered their time, expertise, and knowledge. The planning group thanks all who attended and/or participated in the workshop (see Appendix B for biographies of planning group and workshop speakers). This summary has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published summary as sound as possible and to ensure that the summary meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential. We thank the following individuals for their review of this summary: Juliann Allison, University of California, Riverside Alan Berkowitz, Institute for Environmental Modeling Mary Colvard, New York State Department of Education Diane Ebert-May, Michigan State University Louis Gross, University of Tennessee Richard Norgaard, University of California, Berkeley

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Although the reviewers listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this summary was overseen by Robert R. Sokal of the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this summary rests entirely with the institution.

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Contents     INTRODUCTION   1     SUMMARY OF THE WORKSHOP   5     Principles of Research Applied to Education Projects,   7     Getting Started Forming Collaborations,   8     Considering a Target Audience,   11     What Constitutes an Effective Undergraduate Research Project?,   12     Case Study 1 Cathryn Manduca, Carleton College Designing Research Experiences for Undergraduates,   12     Case Study 2 Ben van der Pluijm, University of Michigan Global Change Program,   17     Working with K-12 Educators,   18     Case Study 3 Felicia Keesing, Bard College – Integrating Research and Education-an Epistemologic View of How the Scientific Method Can Aid Learning,   19     Case Study 4 Monica Elser, Arizona State University, Central Arizona-Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research,   21     Case Study 5 Elizabeth Carvellas, Essex, Vermont— Teachers Experiencing the Arctic and Antarctic ,   24     Case Study 6 Cary Sneider, Boston Museum of Science— “Nowcasting” project,   26     Community Outreach—Education Projects Outside the Educational System,   27

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    Working with Journalists and Other Groups That Influence the Public,   28     How to Work with Journalists,   28     Case Study 7Kim Kastens, Columbia University, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Environmental Journalism Program,   29     Assessing the Progress and Efficacy of Projects,   30     Putting It All Together: An Overview of Why Education Proposals Are Unique,   32     APPENDIXES     A   Charge to the Planning Group   37 B   Biographical Information on Planning Group Members and Workshop Speakers   38 C   Workshop Information   46 D   Assessment and Evaluation Data on Case Study Projects   53 E   Additional Resources   66 F   Selected Reports on Learning from the National Academies   76