Reference

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated Relative Risk (95% CI)

Tetrachloroethylene and Dry-cleaning Solvents

Cohort Studies—Mortality

Ruder et al., 2001

Dry-cleaning union workers

14

2.47 (1.35–4.14)

 

Long-term exposurea

10

5.03 (2.41–9.47)

 

Tetrachloroethylene-only

5

2.65 (0.85–6.20)

 

Tetrachloroethylene-plus other solvents

9

2.40 (1.10–4.56)

Boice et al., 1999

Aircraft-manufacturing workers in California

 

 

Potential routine exposure

6

1.47 (0.54–3.21)

 

≥5 years routine or intermittent

3

0.91 (0.13–1.60)

Blair et al., 1990

Dry-cleaning union members in St. Louis, MO

 

 

Dry-cleaning solvents

13

2.1 (1.1–3.6)b

 

Medium exposure (white males)

1

2.9 (0.1–18.6)b

 

Medium exposure (black males)

7

3.6 (1.5–7.6)b

 

High exposure (white males)

0

 

High exposure (black males)

1

2.0 (0.1–11.1)b

Case-Control Study

Vaughan et al., 1997

Cases from the dry-cleaning industry

 

Squamous cell (possible exposure)

2

3.6 (0.5–27.0)

 

Squamous cell (probable)

2

6.4 (0.6–68.9)

 

Adenocarcinoma (possible)

2

1.1 (0.2–5.7)

 

Adenocarcinoma (probable)

1

0.9 (0.1–10.0)

Benzene

Cohort Studies—Mortality

Gérin et al., 1998

Male residents of Montreal, Canada

 

 

Medium or high exposure

5

0.9 (0.3–2.4)

Yin et al., 1996a

Chinese factory workers ever exposed to benzene

27

1.8 (0.8–4.5)

 

Males

25

2.0 (0.9–5.4)

 

Females

2

0.8 (0.1–16.7)

Hayes et al., 1996

Chinese factory workers (cumulative exposure to benzene)

 

 

None

7

1.0

 

<10 ppm-years

5

3.5

 

10–39 ppm-years

1

0.5

 

40–99 ppm-years

3

1.3

 

100–400 ppm-years

5

1.1

 

>400 ppm-years

13

3.2

 

 

 

p-trend=0.09

Xylene and Toluene

Case-Control Studies

Parent et al., 2000

Male residents of Montreal, Canada

 

 

Esophageal

 

 

Any toluene

16

1.2 (0.7–2.2)

 

Substantial toluene

7

1.5 (0.6–3.7)

 

Squamous cell

 

 

Any toluene

15

2.0 (1.0–3.9)

 

Substantial toluene

6

2.4 (0.9–6.4)

Gérin et al., 1998

Male residents of Montreal, Canada

 

 

Medium or high exposure, xylene

5

1.4 (0.5–3.8)

 

Medium or high exposure, toluene

9

1.9 (0.9–4.2)

Methylene Chloride

Cohort Study—Mortality

Hearne and Pifer, 1999

Male Kodak workers in New York state, employed >1 year

 

Methylene chloride cohort

2

0.63 (0.07–2.28)

 

Roll-coating division (external control)

4

1.42 (0.38–3.65)

 

Roll-coating division (internal control)

4

1.40 (0.38–3.58)



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