TABLE 6.8 Selected Epidemiologic Studies—Stomach Cancer and Exposure to Organic Solvents

Reference

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated Relative Risk (95% CI)

Trichloroethylene

Cohort Studies—Incidence

Hansen et al., 2001

Biologically monitored Danish workers

3

0.8 (0.2–2.3)

Blair et al., 1998

Aircraft-maintenance workers in Utah

 

 

No trichloroethylene exposure

6

1.5 (0.4–6.0)

 

<5 unit-years

1

0.3 (0.1–2.6)

 

5–25 unit-years

7

3.1 (0.8–12.1)

 

>25 unit-years

6

2.0 (0.5–8.1)

Anttila et al., 1995

Finnish workers biologically monitored for exposure

 

 

Years since first measurement

 

 

0–9 years

6

1.32 (0.48–2.87)

 

10–19 years

4

0.63 (0.17–1.60)

 

20+ years

7

2.98 (1.20–6.13)

 

Whole period

17

1.28 (0.75–2.04)

 

Mean personal U-TCA level

 

 

<100 µmol/L

12

1.65 (0.98–1.39)

 

100+ µmol/L

4

0.91 (0.25–2.32)

Cohort Studies—Mortality

Boice et al., 1999

Aircraft-manufacturing workers in California, potential routine exposure

17

1.32 (0.77–2.12)

Blair et al., 1998

Aircraft-maintenance workers in Utah, employed >1 year

23

0.9 (0.4–1.9)

Wilcosky et al., 1984

Male rubber workers in Ohio, exposed >1 year

5

1.0

Tetrachloroethylene and Dry-cleaning Solvents

Cohort Studies—Mortality

Boice et al., 1999

Aircraft-manufacturing workers in California, potential routine exposure

7

1.42 (0.57–2.93)

Ruder et al., 1994

Dry-cleaning labor-union workers

5

0.61 (0.20–1.43)

 

Males

2

0.43 (0.05–1.54)

 

Females

3

0.86 (0.18–2.53)

Blair et al., 1990

Dry-cleaning union members in St. Louis, MO

 

 

Dry-cleaning solvents

11

0.8 (0.4–1.4)

Benzene

Cohort Studies—Incidence

Yin et al., 1996a

Chinese factory workers ever exposed to benzene

85

0.9 (0.7–1.4)

 

Males

71

0.9 (0.6–1.4)

 

Females

14

1.0 (0.4–2.8)

Hayes et al., 1996

Chinese factory workers (cumulative exposure to benzene)

 

 

None

43

1.0

 

<10 ppm-years

6

0.6

 

10–39 ppm-years

13

1.0

 

40–99 ppm-years

12

0.9

 

100–400 ppm-years

25

1.0

 

400+ ppm-years

27

1.2

 

 

 

p-trend=0.63

Case-Control Study

Gérin et al., 1998

Male residents of Montreal, Canada

 

 

Benzene, medium exposure

11

1.5 (0.8–3.2)

 

Benzene, high exposure

6

1.3 (0.5–3.2)



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