Reference

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated Relative Ris (95% CI)

Anttila et al., 1995

Biologically monitored Finnish workers

 

 

Years since first measurement:

 

 

0–9 years

3

1.23 (0.25–3.59)

 

10–19 years

3

0.62 (0.13–1.80)

 

20+ years

2

0.92 (0.11–3.31)

 

Whole period

8

0.84 (0.36–1.66)

Cohort Studies—Mortality

Boice et al., 1999

Aircraft-manufacturing workers in California, potential routine exposure

30

1.07 (0.72–1.52)

Blair et al., 1998

Aircraft-maintenance workers in Utah

54

1.4 (0.8–2.4)

 

Males

 

 

No trichloroethylene exposure

21

1.5 (0.7–3.3)

 

<5 unit-years

19

1.5 (0.7–3.3)

 

5–25 unit-years

12

1.5 (0.7–3.6)

 

>25 unit-years

15

1.5 (0.7–3.3)

Case-Control Study

Fredriksson et al., 1989

Residents of Sweden

 

Trichloroethylene

NA

1.5 (0.4–5.7)

 

Trichloroethylene among dry cleaners

NA

7.4 (1.1–47.0)

Tetrachloroethylene and Dry-cleaning Solvents

Cohort Study—Mortality

Ruder et al., 2001

Dry-cleaning labor-union workers (intestine)

32

1.48 (1.01–2.09)

 

Long-term exposurea

13

1.48 (0.79–2.58)

 

Tetrachloroethylene only

8

1.18 (0.51–2.33)

Case-Control Studies

Paulu et al., 1999

Residents of Cape Cod, MA

 

 

Colon-rectum (11-year latency)

 

 

≤Median

6

2.0 (0.6–5.8)

 

>Median

5

1.5 (0.4–4.4)

Fredriksson et al., 1989

Residents of Sweden

 

Female dry cleaners

5

2.0 (0.5–7.1)

Benzene

Cohort Studies—Mortality

Yin et al., 1996a

Chinese factory workers ever exposed to benzene (colon-rectum)

 

 

Total

34

0.9 (0.5–1.7)

 

Males

24

1.1 (0.5–2.3)

 

Females

10

0.7 (0.3–2.0)

Hayes et al., 1996

Chinese factory workers (colorectal; benzene cumulative exposure)

 

 

None

17

1.0

 

<10 ppm-years

7

1.5

 

10–39 ppm-years

4

0.7

 

40–99 ppm-years

3

0.5

 

100–400 ppm-years

8

0.8

 

400+ ppm-years

12

1.4

 

 

 

p-trend=0.91



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