TABLE 6.10 Selected Epidemiologic Studies—Rectal Cancer and Exposure to Organic Solvents

Reference

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated Relative Risk (95% CI)

Trichloroethylene

Cohort Studies—Incidence

Hansen et al., 2001

Biologically monitored Danish workers

7

1.3 (0.5–2.7)

Anttila et al., 1995

Biologically monitored Finnish workers

 

 

Entire period since first measurement

12

1.71 (0.88–2.98)

 

0–9 years

3

1.59 (0.33–4.64)

 

10–19 years

8

2.22 (0.96–4.36)

 

20+ years

1

0.67 (0.02–3.72)

 

Mean personal U-TCA level:

 

 

<100 µmol/L

9

2.34 (1.07–4.44)

 

100+ µmol/L

2

0.85 (0.10–3.07)

Cohort Studies—Mortality

Boice et al., 1999

Aircraft-manufacturing workers in California, potential routine exposure

9

1.29 (0.59–2.45)

Blair et al., 1998

Aircraft-maintenance workers in Utah, employed >1 year

5

0.4 (0.1–1.5)

Morgan et al., 1998

Aerospace workers in Arizona

 

Trichloroethylene-exposed subcohort

6

1.06 (0.39–2.31)

 

High trichloroethylene-exposure

5

1.38 (0.45–3.21)

Case-Control Study

Dumas et al., 2000

Male residents of Montreal, Canada

 

 

Any exposure

12

2.0 (1.0–3.9)

 

Substantial exposure

3

0.9 (0.3–3.2)

Tetrachloroethylene and Dry-cleaning Solvents

Cohort Study—Mortality

Ruder et al., 2001

Dry-cleaning labor-union workers (intestine)

 

 

Tetrachloroethylene plus other solvents

7

2.16 (0.86–4.45)

Case-Control Study

Paulu et al., 1999

Residents of Cape Cod, MA

 

 

Colon-rectum (11-year latency)

 

 

≤Median

6

2.0 (0.6–5.8)

 

>Median

5

1.5 (0.4–4.4)

Benzene

Cohort Studies—Mortality

Yin et al., 1996a

Chinese factory workers ever exposed to benzene (colon-rectum)

 

 

Total

34

0.9 (0.5–1.7)

 

Males

24

1.1 (0.5–2.3)

 

Females

10

0.7 (0.3–2.0)

Hayes et al., 1996

Chinese factory workers (colorectal; benzene cumulative exposure)

 

 

None

17

1.0

 

<10 ppm-years

7

1.5

 

10–39 ppm-years

4

0.7

 

40–99 ppm-years

3

0.5

 

100–400 ppm-years

8

0.8

 

400+ ppm-years

12

1.4

 

 

 

p-trend=0.91

Case-Control Study

Gérin et al., 1998

Male residents of Montreal, Canada

 

 

High exposure

4

0.8 (0.3–2.5)



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